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Anxiety Disorders
Chapter 11 Section 2
Types of Anxiety Disorders
Disorders are characterized by excessive
or inappropriate anxiety reactions.
Major types
Panic disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Phobias- Irrational or excessive fears of particular objects or
The DSM-IV classifies 3 types of phobic disorders.
• Social phobia (meeting others, dating, giving speeches in
• Specific phobia (heights, animals, insects, enclosed spaces)
• Agoraphobia (open or public places)
have a
Panic Disorder
People with panic disorder experience sudden
episodes of sheer terror.
Characterized by intense physical symptoms (Write
down 3)
Profuse sweating
Numbness or tingling
Chest pain
Shortness of breath
Rapid heartbeat
Panic Disorder
Panic disorder can, at first, come out of
the blue.
Later, they are usually associated with
◦ Agoraphobia can develop in people who have
panic disorders.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Experience persistent anxiety that is not
tied to any particular object or situation.
Anxiety is a “free floating” quality that
travels with the person from place to
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Persistent obsessions and/or compulsions.
Nagging, intrusive thoughts that are
unable to be controlled.
Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or
“rituals” the person performs again and
the difference
between a compulsion
and a superstition?
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Biological
◦ Genetics have been found to be
a cause of panic disorders,
generalized anxiety disorder,
OCD, and phobic disorders
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Biological
◦ Biochemical changes in brain trigger
an “internal alarm” to induce panic
◦ Obsessional thinking may be linked
to danger sensing areas of the brain
may be heightened in some people.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Psychological
◦ Phobias may be learned through classical
conditioning (people who have been bit
by dogs maybe scared of them).
◦ Operant conditioning may reinforce
avoidance behavior (avoidance of object
is negatively reinforced by feelings of
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Negative
reinforcement can help
perpetuate OCD (obsessive
thoughts trigger anxiety, which is
partially relieved through
performing a ritual. In effect, the
solution becomes the problem)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Triggering stimulus
(internal or external)
Perceived Threat
of sensations
Feelings of
or worry