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Father of Renaissance sculpture
Most famous for the bronze statue David the first
free-standing nude in Europe since Roman times
First major architect of the Italian Renaissance
Designed the church of San Lorenzo
Lorenzo Valla
Wrote On Pleasure
Exposed as a forgery the Donation of
Known as the “father of modern historical
Most important political writer during the
Wrote The Prince, which rejected the traditional
Christian view
A ruler must be willing to be ruthless to be
successful – “end justifies the mean”
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man
Wrote The Book of the Courtier
A gentlemen should be well-rounded, know
several languages, be athletic, and polite
Leonardo da Vinci
First Italian painter to use oil
Painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper
He dealt with mostly religious themes but
in secular manner
Painter and sculpture
Painted the frescoes on the Sistine Chapel for
Pope Julius II
Sculpted Pieta and Moses
Movable Printing Press
Developed by Johannes
Spread ideas of
Renaissance and
humanistic literature to
the rest of Europe
1456 Gutenberg Bible
Charles VII revives France and monarchy
Organized France’s first standing army
By 1453, he had expelled English out of all of
France except Calais
Ottomans capture Constantinople
Peace of Lodi
Florence, Milan, and Venice sign alliance to
create new order in Northern Italy
The Medici
Medici Family
Held power in Florence
Wealth from banking
Height of Florence
Cosimo, dynasty
Lorenzo the
Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and
Isabella of Castile unites Spain
Pazzi Conspiracy
Unsuccessful attempt in Florence to
overthrow the Medici in favor of Pope
Sixtus IV
Louis XI ruled France
Known as the “Spider King”
Promoted new industry, welcomed
foreign craftsmen, increased taxes in
order to improve military
The end of the War of
the Roses
English Civil War
between York house
and the Lancaster
York (white) and
Lancaster (Red)
Henry VII become
first Tudor monarch
– “New monarch”
Portuguese Exploration
Prince Henry the Navigator
Established sailing and navigation school
at Sagres
Responsible for the growth of the Portugal
colonial empire
Bartholomew Diaz - Portuguese sea captain
and explorer
In 1487 became the first European to see
Cape of Good Hope and to round southern
tip of Africa
Portuguese Exploration
Helped find southeastern water route to Asia
1497-9 Vasco da Gama sailed in India
In 1500 Pedro Cabral sent to India but blown off
Sighted Brazil and claimed it for Portugal
Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castile
married and unified Spain
Expulsion of Moors and Jews from Spain
led to economic decline because no middle
Christopher Columbus went out looking for
new route to India, but instead reached the
“New World” or the Americas
Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Pope Alexander VI
Corrupt Spanish Pope
Aided militarily by his son, Cesare
Successfully recovered papal authority in
the papal lands
In Florence the Dominican friar
Girolamo Savonarola:
Attacked paganism and moral vice of
Florence under Medici rule
Attacked undemocratic government and
corruption of Pope Alexander VI
Treaty of Tordesillas
The new world, or the Americas, was divided by
the “line of demarcation” between Spain and
Decided by Pope Leo VI
Invasion of Italy by King Charles VIII of France
Medici driven from power
French welcomed by Savonarola
John Cabot
Italian navigator
Explored off the coast of New
England, Nova Scotia,
and Newfoundland
Gave England claim to North America
Savonarola hanged and burned at the stake
in Florence
(known for his prophecies of civic glory and
calls for Christian renewal, led call for
establishment of republic when Medicis
temporarily overthrown, denounced clerical
corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of
the poor; called for “bonfire of the vanities)
1500’s – known as the cinquecentro
1500-1527 – High Renaissance
1503-1513 – Julius II is pope – Julius II was
responsible for much of the artwork accumulated
by the Roman Catholic Church in the Vatican and
elsewhere. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint
the Sistine Chapel
1506 – Julius II begins work on Saint Peter’s
1509 – Erasmus publishes Praise of Folly – a plea
for Christian morality
1509 – Henry VIII becomes King of England
1512 – Lateran Council meets to reform the
Church; Start of the Reformation
1512- Medici overthrow the Republic in Florence
1513 – Balboa discovers the Pacific
1513 – The Prince written by Machiavelli
1513-1521 – Pope Leo X is pope
1516 – Thomas More publishes Utopia
1516- Concordat of Bologna
Established royal control over church appointments
1517 – Luther posts 95 theses on Wittenberg Castle
1519-1522 – Charles V commissioned Magellan’s
crew circumnavigates the earth
1519 – Leonardo da Vinci dies
1519 – Charles V “universal monarch” becomes
Holy Roman Emperor
1520 – Luther publishes Appeal to the Christian
Nobility of the German Nation
1520- Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X
Edict of Worms declared Luther a heretic
Henry VIII writes the Defense of the Seven
Sacraments, attacking Luther
Start of the Hapsburg – Valois wars
Diet of Worms called by Charles V, puts Luther on
trial – “Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise”
1524-1525 – Peasants revolt in Germany
1526- Turks defeat the Hungarians at the Battle of
Machiavelli dies
Charles V sacks Rome
Henry VIII is thus unable to get Pope Clement VII
to give him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon – a
relative of Charles V
End of Renaissance in Italy
1528 – Castiglione publishes The Book of the
1529 – Colloquy of Marburg summoned to unite
Protestant opinion – failed
1529 – The Turks besieged Vienna
1529- Diet of Speyer – Charles V makes
Anabaptism punishable by drowning
1530- Augsburg Confessions – doctrinal basis for
1531- Formation of the Schmalkaldic League
a defensive alliance by the Protestant German
1531- Battle of Kappel – Zwingli killed
1533 – Henry VIII issues the Act in Restraint of
Appeals – King sovereign in England; forbade
judicial appeals to the papacy
Henry VIII issues Act of Submission of the Clergy –
required churchmen to submit to the king
Henry VIII issues Act of Supremacy – king supreme
head of the Church of England
Henry VIII issues Act of Succession – all subjects
must swear oath of loyalty to the king
Rabelais published Gargantua and Pantagruel
1535- Thomas More executed
1536 – Pilgrimage of Grace – massive multiclass
rebellion against Henrican religious policies –
brutally suppressed
1536- Ten Articles established the doctrine for the
Church of England (basically Lutheran)
1536 – Institutes of Christian Religion published by
1540 – Society of Jesus, Jesuits, founded by
Ignatius of Loyola
1541 – John Calvin begins theocracy in Geneva,
1542 – Roman Inquisition
1542 – Catholic Church publishes Index of
Prohibited Books
1543 – Copernicus publishes On Revolutions of
Heavenly Spheres – the year he died to avoid
persecution by the Catholic Church
1545-1563 – Council of Trent called by Pope Paul
III to suggest reforms of the Catholic Church; End
of Reformation
1547 – Miguel de Cervantes born – author of Don
Quixote a story that criticized the Spanish
government for their negligence
1548 – Ignatius Loyola publishes Spiritual Exercises
1549 – Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer
1550 – Start of Baroque movement – period of
elaborate art, which was present in many Catholic
churches and institutions
art – Rubens The Horrors of War
music - Bach
This period of time was known as the
Baroque Movement
Emotional, exuberant art
Emphasized dramatic, curving forms,
elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance
of disparate parts
Developed with exceptional vigor in Catholic
countries—Spain, Latin America, Austria,
southern Germany, & Poland
Peace of Augsburg
(cuius regio, eius religio)
After the abdication of Charles V, his son Philip II
became King of Spain in 1556
Marriage was only considered a political alliance to
Queen Mary I of England
Elisabeth of Valois, the daughter of Henri I of
Anne, the daughter of emperor Maximilian II
Declared himself the leader of the Counter
Ignatius Loyola dies
1558 - death of Queen Mary of England
The daughter of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I
took the throne in England, succeeding her halfsister
She was a politique
She was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty
Act of Uniformity in England: required the use of
the Protestant Book of Common Prayer by Thomas
Philip II of Spain & Henri II of France signed the
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
Henry II killed in joust – Catherine de Medici
becomes regent for Francis II
It ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars with Spain as
the victor
It ended an era of dynastic wars so both countries
could focus on wiping out Protestantism
This period marked the height of the Great
European Witch-Hunt
The vast majority of “witches” were married
or widowed women between the ages of fifty
and seventy years old. They were usually
crippled or bent with age, and with
pockmarked skin.
3,229 witches were executed in southwestern
The War of Three Henrys
was a French civil war for
the throne between Henri of
Navarre (Huguenot), Henri
of Guise (Catholic), and
Henri III of Valois
• Henri of Navarre
emerged victorious and
became Henry IV of
Johannes Kepler expanded
on the work of his mentor,
Tycho Brahe
Three famous laws of
planetary motion:
While Copernicus
speculated, Kepler proved
his ideas mathematically
Galileo Galilei
challenged old ideas
about motion
He consolidated the
experimental method
Galileo formulated the
law of inertia and
provided astrological
evidence for the
Copernican theory
Tried for heresy by the
papal Inquisition and
forced to recant his
The wave of Catholic mob violence against
the French Huguenots was known as St.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
It marked a turning point in the War of
Three Henrys
Several dozen Huguenot leaders were
murdered in Paris
The Union of Utrecht unified the northern
provinces of the Netherlands and formed a
Protestant republic
Foundation of the republic of the Seven
United Netherlands
Their independence was not formally
recognized until the Peace of Westphalia in
Following the death of Ivan the Terrible,
Russia experienced a period of chaos and
struggles known as the “Time of Troubles”
In 1613 the nobles elected Michael Romanov,
sixteen-year-old grandnephew of Ivan the
Terrible, to be the tsar of Russia – because
they thought they could manipulate him
Mary, Queen of Scots was
beheaded on charges of plotting
against her first cousin,
Elizabeth I (“The Babington
If Elizabeth were to die
childless, the Catholic Mary
would have become Queen of
The Spanish Armada defeated by the English
The Spanish ironically had called the fleet
felícissima armada—”The most fortunate fleet”
Prevented Philip II from imposing religious unity
on Western Europe by force
The Edict of Nantes ended the War of
Three Henrys
Henry IV of France granted the French
Huguenots liberty of conscience and
The Huguenots were granted 150 places of
safety, such as La Rochelle
Its purpose was primarily to end the longrunning French wars of religion & restore
Prepared the way for French absolutism in
the seventeenth century by restoring
internal unity
1602 - Chartering of Dutch East India Company –
reaped enormous wealth and allowed the
Netherlands to dominate the European economy
in 1650
1603: Death of Elizabeth I and the end of the
Tudor dynasty and the start of the Stuarts; end of
the northern Renaissance
The Gunpowder Plot - a desperate but failed
attempt by a group of unsophisticated English
Catholics to kill King James I of England, by
blowing up the Houses of Parliament
1611: King James Version of the Bible first
published in England
1613: An Assembly of the Russian Empire elects
Mikhail Romanov to be the Tsar of Russia;
establishes the Romanov Dynasty
The French Estates General meets for the
last time before the beginning of the
French Revolution
1618-1648: Thirty Years’ War
Four phases:
Bohemian - Defenestration of Prague starts war in
Bohemia; Protestant forces defeated
Danish – height of Catholic forces during the war;
Edict of Restitution (1629) – emperor declared all
church territories secularized since 1552 to be
restored to Catholic Church
Swedish – Protestants liberate territory lost in
previous phase
French – “International Phase” political
1624-1643: Richelieu dominates French
government during Louis XIII’s reign.
Reshuffled the royal council, eliminated
potential power brokers, crushed
aristocratic conspiracies, used intendants
1625: Huguenots revolt in France
1625-1675: Golden Age of Dutch culture
1626: Charles I dissolves Parliament
He came to the throne when Europe was moving
towards control by all-powerful monarchs, such as
Louis XIV. Charles would attempt to pursue similar
policies but would be limited by a powerful
parliamentary opposition.
widespread opposition to many of Charles' actions:
use of the Court of the Star Chamber to suppress
taxation without the approval of Parliament
a religious policy that was seen by the puritans as
an attempt to bring the Anglican Church closer
to Roman Catholicism
1628: Charles I reconvenes the English
Parliament and accepts the Petition of Right
as a concession to gain his subsidies
limited the power of Charles I of England
 could not declare martial law
 could not collect taxes
 could not imprison people without
 soldiers could not be housed without
Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two
Chief World Systems is published
The English Long Parliament is summoned.
called by Charles I after the Bishop’s
Wars. It receives its name from the fact
that it sat almost continuously during the
English Civil War. The sole reason Charles
reassembled Parliament was to ask it to
pass finance bills, since the Bishop’s Wars
had bankrupted him.
1640-1688: Frederick William, Elector of
1642-49 English Civil War
Between the Royalists (supporters of Charles I of
England) and the Parliamentarian supporters of the
Long Parliament. 1648: Peace of Westphalia ended
the Thirty Years' War and readjusted the religious
and political affairs of Europe
1645: Cromwell creates The New Model Army
1649: Charles I executed
Start of the Fronde in France
English Parliament finds Charles I guilty of treason,
and sentences him to be executed
Oliver Cromwell would soon become Lord
Protector of England, a position which made him a
virtual dictator
1648-1660: Fronde
The Fronde in France
series of outbreaks during the reign of King Louis
XIV, caused by:
• the efforts of the Parlement of Paris to limit the
growing authority of the crown
• the personal ambitions of discontented nobles
• the grievances of the people against the
financial burdens suffered under cardinals
Richelieu and Mazarin
William III of Orange
becomes Prince of the
House of Orange in the
Netherlands is Protestant
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher &
political theorist
In “Leviathan,” he explains that sovereignty is
derived from the people, who in turn transfer it to
the monarchy
He says the power of the ruler is absolute, but they
do not have divine right
Advocated absolutism - without it, there would be
anarchy and chaos
Parliament passes first Navigation Act
Goods imported into England must be on English
Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-1675
 Enforced by Oliver Cromwell &
said that British goods have to be
carried on British ships
 Goal: to hurt Dutch shipping
 Caused the rise of British
Mercantilism & crushed the Dutch
shipping dynasty
 1650-1790 Marked unprecedented
growth of Atlantic Trade!
1658 The
~ Oliver
Dies So…
The Restoration
 Charles II Brought Back to the Throne
 Parliament Restored & Anglican Church
1670 ~ Charles II Secretly Agrees With to Louis XIV
- ReCatholicize England
- Declare himself Catholic (at the appropriate time)
-Ease restrictions on Catholics
1663-1683 ~ Colbert’s Mercantilism in France
 Created powerful merchant marine under
Louis Xiv & greatly aided the
development of manufactured goods
1665 ~ The Plague in GB
 Brought by fleas on black rats on ships
1666 ~ Great Fire in GB
 Helped end the plague
Test Acts 1673
People had to take the Eucharist or you would be
limited from holding public office
1680s Start of Enlightenment
1682-1725 Rule of Peter the Great in Russia
 Westernization of Russia & Built St.
1685 ~ Edict of Fontainebleau
 1685 - Louis XIV Revoked the Edict of
Nantes to ensure his complete unity of the
1686 ~ Fontenelle published Conversation on the
Plurality of Worlds
 Attempt to make scientific revolution
information witty & expose a new
audience to it
1687 ~ Newton’s Principia
 Describes laws of motion & synthesizes
everyone’s work previous to him
Charles II’s brother James becomes king of
Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes
-ends religious toleration of the Huguenots
Glorious Revolution 1688
James II sympathetic towards Catholics
 All of England Scared of a Catholic King
& possibility of Catholic Heir
 James Violated Test Act!!!
 Tories –Parliamentary supporters of the
 Whigs – Parliamentary opponents of the
 William of Orange & James’ daughter
Mary invited to take over
 No blood shed @ all = GLORIOUS!!!
 James flees to France
William and Mary accept the Bill of Rights
Affirms the rights of Parliament
Anglicanism is the established Church of England
Catholics prohibited from being on the throne
John Locke’s Essays Concerning Human
 Tabula Rasa!!! ~ blank slate…experience
and exposure
Second Treatise of Civil Government
 “Life, liberty & property”
Great Northern War
Charles XII (Sweden)
Peter the Great
Ended by Treaty of Nystad
• Peter gained Baltic states “window to
the West”
Tull invents the seed drill
Brought agricultural revolution to England from
the Netherlands
Foundation of St. Petersburg
Westernization of Russia by Peter the Great
Influenced by Louis XIV’s Versailles
Act of Settlement in England
Only Anglican could succeed to the throne of
After restoration
Charles II= king
War of Spanish Succession
Between England, Spain, and France
Fought because of Louis XIV’s relative’s
possibility of becoming the new Spanish
Act of Union
Unified Scotland and England
• English and Scottish Parliaments
Became Great Britain
Savery and Newcomen invent steam pump
Agricultural Revolution
Peace of Utrecht – end of War of Spanish Succession
Ended French expansion policies under Louis
• Destroyed French economy
• Led to depopulation
• Weakened Louis XIV
Britain= biggest winner
• Got asiento from Spain
• Spain lost most of its possessions
Pragmatic Sanction 1713
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Teresa- reduced serfdom- Joseph II
End of the reign of Louis XIV
He was the most successful absolute ruler
Kay invented the flying shuttle
Agricultural Revolution
1740-1748 War of Austrian
Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Spain vs. Austria and
Prussia took Silesia from Austria making it the
most powerful German State: “great power”
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Ended War of Austrian Succession
Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Law
Power checks power
Influenced the American Revolution
Beginning of the Population explosion in
First publication of the Encyclopedia by Diderot
and d’Alembert (published until 1765)
Start of the Seven Years War
Diplomatic Revolution (Alliance of Britain and
Rousseau’s Social Contract
Ascension of Catherine the Great
Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny
Arkwright invents the water frame
1st Partitioning of Poland by Catherine the Great of
Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, and Frederick of
Poland lost one-third of territory and half of the
1773-4: Pugachev’s Rebellion in Russia
Death of Louis XV
Ascension of Louis XVI
Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations
Attacked mercantilism and advocated economic
Death of Maria Theresa
Ascension of Joseph II of Austria
(ish) Arkwright: Steam engine to power looms
Enlightened despot Joseph II abolishes
Estates General called by Louis XVI
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration of the Right of Man
3rd Estate becomes the National Assembly
Storming of the Bastille
Women march to Versailles to demand action
from Louis XVI
Olympe de Gourges: The Rights of Women
Legislative Assembly convenes
Prussia and Austria issue the Declaration of
Death of Mozart
Mary Wollstonecraft: Declaration of the
Rights of Woman
Legislative Assembly declares war
Legislative Assembly disbands
National Convention formed
France declared a Republic
2nd Partitioning of Poland
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin
Louis XVI beheaded
Mountain ousts the Girondins
Committee of Public Safety formed
Start of the Reign of Terror
Danton and Followers executed
Marie Antoinette beheaded
Thermidorean Reaction
End of the Reign of Terror
Robespierre executed
Girondins readmitted
Economic controls lifted; ended control of
Institution of the Revolutionary Calendar
3rd and Final Partitioning of Poland
Formation of the Directory
Coup d’état Brumaire by Napoleon
Formation of the Consulate; Napoleon
declared 1st Consul
Combination Acts – the British government
prohibit the formation of unions
Napoleon <first consul in 1799>
Concordant (1801): creates reconciliation
between the church and government
Louisiana Purchase (1803): allows France
to concentrate on its European agenda
Napoleonic Code (1804): system of rules
and civil code
Napoleon becomes the self proclaimed
emperor of France (1804)
War efforts
1805 - Battle of Trafalgar: Nelson of Britain
destroys the French Navy and any chance of a
French invasion
1805 - Battle of Austerlitz: France defeats invading
Russian Army
Creation the Confederation of the Rhine and
Grand Duchy of Warsaw establishes Napoleon’s
European Power
After failing to wipe out Britain with the
continental system Napoleon comes to odds with
Spain and touches off the Peninsula War
1807 - Treaty of Tilsit: Between Russia and
France. Keeps Russia out of European Conflict
End of Napoleon
Grand Army in Russia (1812): French
face defeat due to the harsh winter
He is then defeated by a European
Coalition and exiled to Elba, but shortly
escapes. (Hundred Days)
Waterloo (1815): Napoleon defeated by
England and is exiled to St. Helena where
he dies
Congress of Vienna
From 1814-1815, major European powers
were called together to decide what they
should do with post-Napoleon Europe
They decided to strengthen France’s border
states in order to create a balance of power
The leading speakers where Metternich
(Austria), Talleyrand (France), and
Castlereagh (England)
1819: Carlsbad Decree – limited freedom of
the press and prohibited fraternities in
1807: Britain outlaws slave trade in its colonial
trade possesions
1824-1825: Combination Acts repealed in London
allowing the formation of unions
1825: First Railway in the world built in Great
1834: Britain outlaws slave ownership in colonial
1837: Queen Victoria comes to power marks the
end of the industrial revolution
Irish potato famine (1845-1850)
Potato crop ruined
Massive starvation,
Many people immigrated to England and America
Karl Marx
Marx, who lived in Paris, was influenced by the
French Utopian socialists but thought they were
Believed capitalism was simply a stage of history
marked by class struggles
Marx developed the idea of “scientific socialism”
The Communist Manifesto (1848): Written by
Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, introduces
socialism attractive to many struggling European
“He who controls the means of production
controls power”
Revolutions of 1848
February Rebellion in France: overthrows
the rule of Louis Philippe (1830-1848) and
established the Second republic, ended with
the creation of a republic where Napoleon
the III was elected president
Revolutions of 1848
Germany: influenced by the French, the
Germans revolt to create a unified, national
government. After indecisiveness to agree on
a national constitution by the provisional
government, the old regime gains power
Revolutions of 1848
Italy: After their revolt causes the Pope
Pius IX to leave Italy, Mazzini is given
the power to unify Italy, but could not
due to the rigid individuality of city states
Revolutions of 1848
All the revolutions of 1848 – FAILED!!!
Second Empire in France
Emperor Napoleon III seizes power in
December 1851 via coup d’etat
Disastrous Foreign Policy
Liberal reforms to cover foreign policy
Extended power of Legislative Assembly
Ended by Franco-Prussian War
Third French Republic
Adolphe Thiers- created National Assembly
Paris Commune: 1870-71, radical
Chamber of Deputies- Nobles had power
Gambetta- leading radical republican
Ferry- secular education
Boulanger Crises (1887-89)- leader against the
republic committed suicide & this weakened support
for reforms, good for republicans
Dreyfus Affair: 1894, threat to republic, Emile Zola~
realist author, condemned military
Great Britain
Lord Palmerston- dominant power from 1850-65
Conservative party- from Tory Party
Liberal Party- from Whig Party
Mill- On Liberty (1859)
Reform Bill of 1867- Disraeli’s “leap in the Dark”
Reform Act of 1884- suffrage to adult males in some
Fabian Society (1883)- advanced form of revisionist
Crimean War 1853-1856
Dispute over privileges in Holy Land Concert of Europe failed
Turks negotiate with France
Russian Czar Nicholas II threatened by
Fighting between Russians and Turks
Britain, France, and Piedmont join against
Concluded by Peace of Paris- Russians big
losers @ conference
Ausgleich- 1867~ this “compromise” made
Austria into the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Karl Luegar- Vienna mayor, anti-Semitism
Magyars- integrated with Hungary
Unification of Italy 1859-1870
Sardinia-Piedmont led way in unification
under Count Cavour
Cavour sought unity for Northern Italy
Realpolitik – Pragmatic and
Machiavellian view of politics
France agreed to support Sardinia if there was a
war with Austria so Sardinia could establish a
Northern Italian state
France ignored agreement because didn’t want to
go to war with Prussia
Sardinia got Lombardy
• 1860- Cavour annexes Parma, Modena,
Romagna, and Tuscany
• Nice and Savoy transferred to France
May 1860- Liberated Southern Italy and
Sicily with support of his “Red Shirts”
September 1860- took control of Naples
and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Allowed these territories to be annexed by
Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia
1866- Venice included in Italian Kingdom
due to agreement with Otto Van
1871- Rome captured by Italian Troops
Rome made capital of Italy
Italian completes political unification
Cultural gap between progressive,
industrial North and Agrarian South
Otto Von Bismarck
Bismarck-Imperial Chancellor – “Iron
Chancellor” – dominated 1850-1900
A member of the Prussian Junker aristocracy
In 1862 he claimed that Prussia must use
“Blood and Iron”
Schleswig-Holstein 1863
Schleswig and Holstein were located south of
The people were most German speaking, but
ruled by the Danish king
The Danish king annexed Schleswig
Bismarck proposed an alliance with Austria
Denmark quickly defeated in 1864
Prussia would occupy Schleswig
Austria would occupy Holstein
Austro-Prussian War 1866
Bismarck made sure Russia, France, and Italy
would remain neutral if there was a conflict with
France agreed because they expected a long war
and Austrian victory
Italy would gain possessions from Austria
Russia had gained the support of Bismarck in the
suppression of the Russian peasants in 1863
Prussia accused Austria of interfering in the affairs
of Schleswig
In the Seven Weeks War the Prussians soundly
defeated the Austrians
Bismarck wanted to be lenient towards Austria
because he knew he would need their help against
1866: Treaty of Prague
a) Prussia get possession of Schleswig and Holstein
b) also gets some northern German states
c) Austria agreed to dissolution of the German
d) Italy gained Venetia
North German Confederation (1867) now
dominated by Prussia
In the south there were 4 independent states
Prussia wanted the Catholic and liberal
independent states
Franco-Prussian War 1870
Ems Dispatch -Bismarck manipulated
Napoleon III to declare war on Prussia
French surrendered after the Battle of Sedan
1871: Treaty of Frankfurt – Alsace-Lorraine to
Germany(led to French resentment)
January 18, 1871- German Unification complete
William I- Crowned Emperor of Germany (Kaiser
Wilhelm) at Versailles
The Three Emperor’s League 1872
Designed by Bismarck to create stability
William I of Germany
Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria
Tsar Alexander II of Russia
Third French Republic
Established in 1875 after downfall of
Napoleon III
Dominated by bourgeoisie
Chamber of Deputies
Universal Male Suffrage
Leon Gambetta- led Republicans
Jules Ferry- secular education
Government fell multiple times
Emancipation Act of 1861- Mirs & Zemstvos—
abolished serfdom
Intelligensia- nihilism- radical intellectuals of the
socialist pool
Alexander III: Pogroms- anti-Semitism,
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, & Russification”
Herzel- Zionism- Jewish Holy Land
Emancipation Act 1861
Alexander II – very liberal
90% of Russians lived off the land
Serfs freed, but many not impacted
because of mirs, Russian communities
Suez Canal
In the 1800s Egypt was an autonomous part of the
Ottoman empire
The French built the Suez Canal in 1869 to open
the Mediterranean Sea to Indian Ocean
Huge British Advantage
Financial problems soon caused the Egyptians to
sell part ownership to the British
When riots broke out against the British the British
navy bombarded Alexandria
In 1882 Egypt became a British protectorate
Russo-Turkish War 1877-78
Russia dreamed of controlling the Bosporus
Russia supported Pan-Slavism, but under Russian
The Slavs in the Turkish empire used Russian
support to cause problems for the Turks
In 1877 Russia declared war on Turkey
The British became involved to protect the Suez
canal which was in Egypt (part of the Ottoman
In 1878 Turkey was forced to sign the Treaty of San
Congress of Berlin 1878
War between Britain and Russia looked inevitable
Bismarck called for a Congress to meet in Berlin
The Congress kept peace in Europe by carving up
the Turkish Empire
The Russians gave up the Treaty of San Stefano, but
still won independence for the Serbs and Romanians
Austria-Hungary was authorized to “occupy and
administer” Bosnia
Germany gained nothing, except European peace
Bismarck was called the “honest broker”
However Balkan nationalists were dissatisfied and
this would be a cause of World War I in 1914
Africa - Began in the 1870s
Stanley and Livingstone
Conference of Berlin 1875
Called by Bismarck to establish “rules” for
dividing Africa
Germany: Cameroon, Togo, southwest
Africa, & East Africa
France: Tunisia, Algeria, French West
Britain: Egypt and Sudan
Italy: Libya
Fashoda Crisis- Occurred when British and
French armies met unexpectedly in Fashoda,
India controlled by British “jewel of the
Sepoy Mutiny 1857-1858
Insurrection of Hindu & Muslim soldiers –
Indian National Congress 1885
Sino-Japanese War
China defeated by Japan
Rush for protectorates and concessions
Britain, France, Germany, Russia and
1842: Opium War – British annex Hong Kong
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) showed how weak
China was and opened door for imperial nations
Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all
gained territory and control in east China
Led to Boxer Rebellion of 1900 and end of Manchu
Boxer Rebellion 1900
Uprising by Chinese nationalists against Western
Put down
Led to end of Manchu Dynasty
Boer War 1899-1902
Cecil Rhodes- Prime Minister of Cape Colony
Discovery of diamonds and gold in Transvaal
Area controlled by Boers (Dutch settlers)
Kruger Telegram- Kaiser Wilhelm II congratulates
Boers on victory over British
Imperialist Literature
Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden - Stated
it was Westerners’ duty to civilize backwards
peoples of Africa
1902: Joseph Conrad writes Heart of Darkness
1902: J.A. Hobson Imperialism: A Study – financiers
were the power behind imperialism
1916: Lenin, Imperialism: The Last Stage of
Capitalism – capitalism must expand to survive
Loyalty felt to government
Universal Male Suffrage common
Welfare States in Germany, Britain, and
Conservatives often led governments
Conservatives channeled patriotism into antiliberalism
Build up of militaries
The Balkans
The “Eastern Question” who would control
the Balkans?
Russia wanted to retake and re-christianize
the Balkans
Gave rise to pan-slavism
Defeated Ottoman Turks
Negotiations mediated by Bismarck the
“honest broker”
Congress of Berlin 1871- Russia left
1904: Entente Cordiale—An agreement
against Germany by France and Great Britain.
Great Britain gains Egypt and France gains
Russo-Japanese War 1904
Start of the Russo Japanese War– This imperialist
war solidifies Japan as a world power
Japan attacked Russian installation at Port Arthur
Technology-advanced Japan defeated traditional
First time a major European power has been beaten
and the first major war since 1870
Weakens the myth of Russian power
Cause of the Russian Revolution as Russia shifted
attention back to Europe, especially the Balkans
Russian Revolution 1905
Defeat by Japanese discredits Russia government
March Revolution of 1905
Bloody Sunday – troops open fire on demonstrators
led by Father Gapon
Turns people against tsar in Russia
1905: October Manifesto, Nicholas II promised
a) constitutional reforms
b) guarantees civil liberties
c) establish a Duma (elected parliament)
1906: Fundamental Laws – The tsar limits the power
of the Duma
1905: Einstein develops Theory of Relativity
1907: Anglo Russian Treaty—A naval treaty to
ensure the protection of Persia
Military competition between England and Germany
Britain develops the Dreadnought
Moroccan Crisis
1914: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand—This event
sparks the “powder keg”
1914: World War I begins
1915: Lusitania Sunk by German U-boats.
1916: Battle of Verdun—France defeats Germany
1916: Easter Rising—An attempt to overtake Dublin
and end British rule in Ireland
1917: Zimmerman Telegram—Note sent by German
ambassador promising Mexico part of United States,
and also used by USA as propaganda for war
Bolshevik Revolution 1917
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia—This ends the
rule of the tsars
Caused by military incompetence and hunger
1918: Treaty of Brest Litovsk—Russia drops
out of WWI.
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Germany loses Alsace and Lorraine, and
Poland becomes an independent country
1922: End of Bolshevik Revolution and start of
U.S.S.R. led by Lenin
1924: Dawes Plan—American Charles Dawes
establishes system for Germany to pay
1924: Stalin takes power after Lenin dies
1925: Locarno Pact—Agreements that secure post
war territorial disputes
1926: English General Strike—Strike by trade unions
in England
1928: The Five Year Plans—Industrial and
agricultural plans in the U.S.S.R. establishing
socialist policies
1929: Great Depression in USA hurts world
Adolph Hitler
1933: Reichstag Fire—German Parliament burns
1933: Rise of Nazi Party in Germany
1935: Nuremburg Laws—Lead to persecution of
Jews in Germany
1936: Start of Spanish Civil War
1936: Rome-Berlin Axis—Pact between Fascist Italy
and Nazi Germany
1938: Munich Conference: Neville Chamberlain of
England appeases Germany and agrees to let Hitler
invade Sudetenland
“Peace in our time”
1939: End of Spanish Civil War
World War II
1939: Start of World War II in Europe to halt Nazi
a) failure of appeasement
b) incomplete enforcement of Versailles
c) fear of Communism
d) rising unemployment in Germany
e) domestic problems caused by the Great Depression
1939: Russo German Nonaggression Pact—Germany
promises not to invade Russia
1941: Lend-Lease begins—Allows for supplies to be
sent to Allied forces from Americas
1941: Atlantic Charter—Document calls for no secret
agreements, self determination, and free elections
1942-43: Battle of Stalingrad—Battle proves to be
turning point for the Eastern Front as the Red Army
begins to push the Germans back out of Russia
1944: D-Day—Allied Forces Invade German
Occupied France and becomes largest naval invasion
in history
Yalta Conference—The Big Three decide that Berlin
and Germany is to be divided into 4 separate military
Hitler commits suicide
Franklin D. Roosevelt dies
End of World War II
Potsdam Conference—Stalin opposes free elections in
Eastern Europe. The United Nations is established
United Nations chartered
The Cold War
1946: Churchill delivers “iron curtain” speech
at Fulton, Missouri
1947: Truman Doctrine helps fight
Communism in Greece and Turkey
1947: Marshall Plan—Advocates American
financial aid to help European restoration
1947: Great Britain grants India independence
1948: Communist dictatorship in
1948: Britain, France, and the Benelux
countries sign the Brussels Pact
The Cold War
1948: Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift—Soviets
blockade Western Berlin so airlifts carry supplies to
1949 Soviets lift Berlin blockade
1949: NATO created
1951: Schuman Plan integrates French and West
German coal and steel industries and forms the
European Coal and Steel Community
1953: Stalin died – replaced by Nikita Khrushchev
who advocated “peaceful coexistence”
1955: Warsaw pact created by Soviets to balance
1955-1962: “De-Stalinization”
1956: Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago
1956: Soviets suppress Hungarian revolution
1957: Russian Satellite Sputnik - in orbit
1957: Treaty of Rome creates the European
Economic Community (Common Market)
1960s: Space Race
1960: U-2 incident causes collapse of Paris Summit
1961: Soviets construct the Berlin Wall to stop East
Germans from leaving
1961: the Russian cosmonaut first to orbit the globe
1962: Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan
1962 Cuban missile crisis
1963: Freidan, The Feminine Mystique
1968: Students protest the policies of the De Gaulle
government in France
Soviet tanks end Prague Spring
1969: America puts first man on the moon
1971: collapse of postwar monetary system
1973-1979: OPEC oil prices increase
1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan – ends détente
between the superpowers
1979: Election of Pope John Paul II from Poland
1980s: Growth of debt
Reduced Spending on Big Science
Computer revolution through 1990s
1980: Lech Walesa leads Solidarity in Poland
1985: Gorbachev take power
Revival of religion in Soviet Union
1988: Economic crisis in Poland
1989: Unification of Germany
1989-1990; Revolutions in Eastern Europe
1990: Maastricht Treaty proposes monetary union
1990s: Conservative economic policies develop in
western Europe
- Migration towards western Europe increases
1991: End of the Soviet Union!
1991-1995: War in former Yugoslavia
1993: European Community becomes European