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Germany 1933 - 1939 • September 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland; WWII begins • Spring 1940 –Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg Germany 1940 - 1946 • October 12, 1940 – Warsaw ghetto is established Area was about 1.3 sq. miles long and the population was about 400,000 people. Warsaw Ghetto Warsaw Ghetto Jews were required by the Nazi’s to build a wall around the entire section of city, which held the Jews. The wall was about 10 feet tall and was held together by a cement/glass mixture. Warsaw Ghetto Jews were required to work long hours in the ghetto creating goods for the German war effort. Warsaw Ghetto Jews were only allowed 300 calories a day. Today’s daily calorie intake is 1940 calories for women and 2550 for men. Sickness/ Disease/ Death • Jews died of starvation • Dead Bodies all over city – night carted off • Disease was rampant –Typhus –common • 1in 10 died in Warsaw, Ghetto in 1941 • 1941 – death rate 6,000 per month – not fast enough for the Nazi’s. Lodz Ghetto Ruth Minsky Sender (Riva) with her brothers, Laibele and Motele Germany 1940 - 1946 • March 24, 1941 – Germany invades North Africa • April 6, 1941 – Germany invades Yugoslavia (Current day Bosnia, Crotia, Macadonia, Montengro, Serbia and Slovenia) and Greece • June 22, 1941 – German army invades the Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads) begin mass murders of Jews, Gypsies, & Communist leaders (turning point of war) Germany 1940 - 1946 • September 23, 1941 - Soviet Prisoners of War and Polish prisoners are killed in Nazi test of gas chambers at Auschwitz in occupied Poland Auschwitz Auschwitz Auschwitz In theory, nothing would be wasted. Hair, gold teeth, crutches, braces, prostheses and suitcases were collected and sorted for potential sale or use among the elite and those who served their cause. Auschwitz Auschwitz Auschwitz Auschwitz Germany 1940 - 1946 • December 7, 1941 - Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor-The Japanese • The surprise attack started at 6:00 AM when the planes left the aircraft carriers in the Pacific Ocean. • 1st wave of Japanese planes hits Pearl Harbor and surrounding airfields in Hawaii at 7:49AM. The Japanese use 181 planes in the attack. They are torpedo bombers, dive bombers and fighter planes. • 2nd wave hits at 9:00 with 170 planes. Pearl Harbor-The Damage •2,403 Killed (This includes 68 civilians and 1,177 crewman from the USS Arizona) •1,178 Wounded •188 planes destroyed most damaged before they were able to get off the ground. •Of the 90 ships on Battleship Row-21 were sunk/damaged. Of the 21, 8 were battleships. They included the USS Pennsylvania, USS Oklahoma, USS West Virginia, USS Nevada, USS California, USS Maryland, USS Tennessee and USS Arizona. Germany 1940 - 1946 • December 11, 1941 – Germany declares war on the United States • January 20, 1942 – 15 German leaders met in Wannsee to discuss the “Final Solution”; Nazi death camps, located in occupied Poland at Auschwitz – Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, & Belzec, begin mass murder of Jews in gas chambers Germany 1940 - 1946 The Battle of Stalingrad Germany 1940 - 1946 The German Perspective 1. August 1942- Invades Stalingrad 2. Nazi’s believed the Soviet Red Army was too weak to resist 3. Hitler thought he would overcome Stalingrad and Caucasus Region in a single sweep Germany 1940 - 1946 •Germans bombard Stalingrad with over 1,000 tons of bombs •40,000 killed during first week of fighting •Germany occupied up to 90% of city •“Rattenkrieg” hand to hand combat Germany 1940 - 1946 Human Casualties •1,011,500 Germans and 1,000,500 Soviet troops mobilized •850,000 Germans were killed, wounded or captured and 750,000 Soviets killed •January 31st, 1943 Paulus and the Germans surrender Warsaw Ghetto Uprising •October 1942 Heinrich Himmler orders to liquidate the Warsaw Ghetto •On April 19th the SS soldiers enter the ghetto to remove the remaining Jews. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising •Between 55,000-60,000 Jews remained in the ghetto •Using homemade bombs and pistols taken from the Polish Home Army Jews stun the Nazis and they retreat to outside the ghetto walls Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Resistance fighters are able to hold off the Nazis for one month. Originally the Nazis believed it would take 3 days to clear the ghetto. The ghetto was liquidated on May 16, 1943 Germany 1940 - 1946 • May 13, 1943 - German and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allies Germany 1940 - 1946 •October 1943 – Danes use boats to smuggle most of the nation’s 7,500 Jews to Sweden Georg Duckwitz Rescuer Nazi General Werner Best Perpetrator Hans Hedtoft Rescuer SOBIBOR •Death Camp •Built March 1942 •Operated from May 1942 until October 1943 •260,000 Jews lost their lives in Sobibor’s gas chambers Escape From Sobibor On October 14, 1943 600 Jews attempted to escape from the death camp. 300 succeeded,and only 50 of them survived the war Germany 1940 - 1946 • After the escape, exterminations cease at Sobibor; all traces of the death camp are then removed and trees are planted. D-DAY • June 6, 1944 – Allied powers invade Western Europe on D-Day D-DAY • Originally scheduled for June 5th but a storm rolled over the English Channel. •1st soldiers mobilized were paratroopers who jumped behind Nazi’s to try and distract them. •Next battleships/airplanes bombed coast of France as naval ships landed on the Beaches of Normandy. D-DAY BEACHES ATTACKED 1. UTAH 4. SWORD 2. OMAHA 5. GOLD 3. POINTE DU HOC 6. JUNO D-DAY • 150,000 Allies Sent to France •5,000 died •Most casualties occurred at Omaha Beach where every 1 in 19 were killed or wounded. •It took the Nazi’s 4 years to reinforce the coast and the ALLIES took it over between 1 hour to 1 day. Germany 1940 - 1946 • January 17, 1945 – Nazis evacuate Auschwitz; prisoners begin “Death Marches” toward Germany Death Marches Prisoners received little aid from people in towns they passed through, and in some cases were harassed and assaulted. Germany 1940 - 1946 • January 26, 1945 - destruction of the crematories at Auschwitz Germany 1940 - 1946 • January 27, 1945 - Soviets troops liberate Auschwitz Camps Liberated Camps Liberated Camps Liberated American soldiers escort children survivors of Buchenwald out of the main gate of the camp. Among the children pictured is future Nobel Peace Prize winner Eli Wiesel (fourth child in the left column). WWII 1945 • April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide • May 7, 1945 – VE Day-Germany surrenders; war ends in Europe • July 26, 1945 the USA offers Japan the Postdam Declaration- “Surrender or have utter destruction” WWII 1945 •August 6, 1945-U.S.A. drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Leveling 5 square miles and killing 80,000 Japanese. WWII 1945 •August 9, 1945-U.S.A. drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. killing 40,000 Japanese. WWII • September 2, 1945 the Japanese surrender to the U.S.A onboard the Missouri ending WWII JUSTICE?? • U.S.A, France, UK and Soviets wanted to punish those responsible for injustices committed: • Hitler • Goebbels • Himmler • Hess • Dr. Mengele • Adolf Eichmann • Herman Goering WWII • November 20, 1945 – October 1, 1946 war crime trials held at Nuremberg, Germany Nuremberg Trials Charged With • Conspiracy • Crimes Against Peace • War Crimes • Crimes Against Humanity • 13 out of 21were executed, 6 given prison terms 10 years to life and 3 acquitted.