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Transcript
Germany 1933 - 1939
• September 1, 1939 – Germany
invades Poland; WWII begins
• Spring 1940 –Germany invades
Denmark, Norway, Belgium, France,
the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
Germany 1940 - 1946
• October 12, 1940 – Warsaw ghetto is
established
Area was about
1.3 sq. miles long and the
population was about 400,000
people.
Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Jews were required
by the Nazi’s to
build a wall around
the entire section
of city, which held
the Jews. The wall
was about 10 feet
tall and was held
together by a
cement/glass
mixture.
Warsaw Ghetto
Jews were required to work long hours in the ghetto
creating goods for the German war effort.
Warsaw Ghetto
Jews were only allowed 300 calories a day.
Today’s daily calorie intake is 1940 calories for women and 2550 for men.
Sickness/ Disease/ Death
• Jews died of starvation
• Dead Bodies all over city – night carted off
• Disease was rampant –Typhus –common
• 1in 10 died in Warsaw, Ghetto in 1941
• 1941 – death rate 6,000 per month – not fast enough for
the Nazi’s.
Lodz Ghetto
Ruth Minsky
Sender
(Riva) with
her
brothers,
Laibele
and Motele
Germany 1940 - 1946
• March 24, 1941 – Germany invades North
Africa
• April 6, 1941 – Germany invades Yugoslavia
(Current day Bosnia, Crotia, Macadonia,
Montengro, Serbia and Slovenia) and Greece
• June 22, 1941 – German army invades the
Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen (mobile
killing squads) begin mass murders of Jews,
Gypsies, & Communist leaders (turning point
of war)
Germany 1940 - 1946
• September 23, 1941 - Soviet Prisoners
of War and Polish prisoners are killed
in Nazi test of gas chambers at
Auschwitz in occupied Poland
Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Auschwitz
In theory, nothing
would be wasted.
Hair, gold teeth,
crutches, braces,
prostheses and
suitcases were
collected and sorted
for potential sale or
use among the elite
and those who served
their cause.
Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Germany 1940 - 1946
• December 7, 1941 - Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor-The Japanese
• The surprise attack started at 6:00 AM when the
planes left the aircraft carriers in the Pacific
Ocean.
• 1st wave of Japanese planes hits Pearl Harbor and
surrounding airfields in Hawaii at 7:49AM. The
Japanese use 181 planes in the attack. They are
torpedo bombers, dive bombers and fighter planes.
• 2nd wave hits at 9:00 with 170 planes.
Pearl Harbor-The Damage
•2,403 Killed (This includes 68 civilians and 1,177
crewman from the USS Arizona)
•1,178 Wounded
•188 planes destroyed most damaged before they were
able to get off the ground.
•Of the 90 ships on Battleship Row-21 were
sunk/damaged. Of the 21, 8 were battleships. They
included the USS Pennsylvania, USS Oklahoma, USS
West Virginia, USS Nevada, USS California, USS
Maryland, USS Tennessee and USS Arizona.
Germany 1940 - 1946
• December 11, 1941 – Germany declares war on
the United States
• January 20, 1942 – 15 German leaders met in
Wannsee to discuss the “Final Solution”; Nazi
death camps, located in occupied Poland at
Auschwitz – Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, &
Belzec, begin mass murder of Jews in gas
chambers
Germany 1940 - 1946
The Battle of Stalingrad
Germany 1940 - 1946
The German Perspective
1. August 1942- Invades Stalingrad
2. Nazi’s believed the Soviet Red Army
was too weak to resist
3. Hitler thought he would overcome
Stalingrad and Caucasus Region in a
single sweep
Germany 1940 - 1946
•Germans bombard Stalingrad with over 1,000
tons of bombs
•40,000 killed during first week of fighting
•Germany occupied up to 90% of city
•“Rattenkrieg” hand to hand combat
Germany 1940 - 1946
Human Casualties
•1,011,500 Germans and 1,000,500
Soviet troops mobilized
•850,000 Germans were killed, wounded
or captured and 750,000 Soviets killed
•January 31st, 1943
Paulus and the
Germans surrender
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
•October 1942 Heinrich Himmler orders to liquidate
the Warsaw Ghetto
•On April 19th the SS soldiers enter the ghetto to
remove the remaining Jews.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
•Between 55,000-60,000 Jews remained in the ghetto
•Using homemade bombs and pistols taken from the Polish
Home Army Jews stun the Nazis and they retreat to outside
the ghetto walls
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Resistance fighters are able to hold off the Nazis for
one month. Originally the Nazis believed it would
take 3 days to clear the ghetto.
The ghetto was liquidated on May 16, 1943
Germany 1940 - 1946
• May 13, 1943 - German and Italian
troops in North Africa surrender to
Allies
Germany 1940 - 1946
•October 1943 – Danes use boats
to smuggle most of the nation’s
7,500 Jews to Sweden
Georg Duckwitz
Rescuer
Nazi General
Werner Best
Perpetrator
Hans Hedtoft
Rescuer
SOBIBOR
•Death Camp
•Built March 1942
•Operated from May 1942 until
October 1943
•260,000 Jews lost their lives in
Sobibor’s gas chambers
Escape From Sobibor
On October 14, 1943 600 Jews
attempted to escape from the
death camp. 300 succeeded,and
only 50 of them survived the war
Germany 1940 - 1946
• After the escape, exterminations cease at
Sobibor; all traces of the death camp are
then removed and trees are planted.
D-DAY
• June 6, 1944 – Allied powers invade
Western Europe on D-Day
D-DAY
• Originally scheduled for June 5th but a
storm rolled over the English Channel.
•1st soldiers mobilized were paratroopers
who jumped behind Nazi’s to try and
distract them.
•Next battleships/airplanes bombed coast
of France as naval ships landed on the
Beaches of Normandy.
D-DAY
BEACHES ATTACKED
1. UTAH
4. SWORD
2. OMAHA
5. GOLD
3. POINTE DU HOC
6. JUNO
D-DAY
• 150,000 Allies
Sent to France
•5,000 died
•Most casualties occurred at Omaha
Beach where every 1 in 19 were killed
or wounded.
•It took the Nazi’s 4 years to reinforce
the coast and the ALLIES took it over
between 1 hour to 1 day.
Germany 1940 - 1946
• January 17, 1945 – Nazis evacuate Auschwitz;
prisoners begin “Death Marches” toward
Germany
Death Marches
Prisoners received little aid from people in towns
they passed through, and in some cases were
harassed and assaulted.
Germany 1940 - 1946
• January 26, 1945 - destruction of the
crematories at Auschwitz
Germany 1940 - 1946
• January 27, 1945 - Soviets troops
liberate Auschwitz
Camps Liberated
Camps Liberated
Camps Liberated
American soldiers
escort children
survivors of
Buchenwald out
of the main gate
of the camp.
Among the
children pictured
is future Nobel
Peace Prize
winner Eli Wiesel
(fourth child in
the left column).
WWII 1945
• April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits
suicide
• May 7, 1945 – VE Day-Germany
surrenders; war ends in Europe
• July 26, 1945 the USA offers Japan
the Postdam Declaration- “Surrender
or have utter destruction”
WWII 1945
•August 6, 1945-U.S.A. drops an
atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
Leveling 5 square miles and killing
80,000 Japanese.
WWII 1945
•August 9, 1945-U.S.A. drops an
atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
killing 40,000 Japanese.
WWII
• September 2, 1945 the
Japanese surrender to the
U.S.A onboard the Missouri
ending WWII
JUSTICE??
• U.S.A, France, UK and Soviets wanted to punish
those responsible for injustices committed:
• Hitler
• Goebbels
• Himmler
• Hess
• Dr. Mengele
• Adolf Eichmann
• Herman Goering
WWII
• November 20, 1945 – October 1, 1946
war crime trials held at Nuremberg,
Germany
Nuremberg Trials Charged
With
• Conspiracy
• Crimes Against Peace
• War Crimes
• Crimes Against Humanity
• 13 out of 21were executed, 6
given prison terms 10 years to
life and 3 acquitted.