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Chapter 8, Lesson 2 The Home Front Mister Julian’s 5th Grade Class Essential Question How did World War II affect the United States economy? Places Los Alamos, New Mexico People Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Albert Einstein Vocabulary Rationing Tuskegee Airmen Atomic Bomb Manhattan Project The Depression Ends The country answered the presidents call when he asked factories to produce war goods to defeat the Axis. All of the production had an important effect. Factories had to expand to produce all the military equipment needed. As a result the Great Depression came to an end. New Jobs for Women When World War II began, 350,000 women served in the military as nurses, airplane pilots, radio operators, and mechanics. Millions more took over the jobs the men left behind in factories, farms, and other areas. There was even an all Girls Baseball League during the war. “Do Your Part” Americans were encouraged to “Do Your Part” during the war. Children organized “Scrap drives” collecting cans and old pots. With millions of soldiers to feed there were food shortages. People were called to ration their food, gas, and tires. “Do Your Part” Everyone got a certain amount of stamps for meat, dairy, canned veggies, coffee, and even gas. If you wanted to buy that item you had to give the store a stamp. When you ran out of stamps you could not buy that product. New Opportunities With many more job openings in factories in the north this gave African Americans new opportunities. Discrimination kept many from these jobs before the war. The military also segregated black and white soldiers. New Opportunities Some African Americans wanted to serve their country like Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Davis and 12 others started the first fighter pilot training for blacks in Tuskegee Alabama. They became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. They served proudly over North Africa and Europe. Japanese Americans After Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were distrusted by many. In February 1942, Presidential Order # 9066 allowed the military to relocate anyone seen as a threat to internment camps. By the summer, more than 110,000 were living in these camps. Technology and War The war had both sides developing new technologies to help their side. Albert Einstein, a German Jew, came to the U.S. after Hitler took power. He believed that an Atomic Bomb could be made and he felt that Germany was likely working on one as well. Technology and War In 1942, the U.S. started the Manhattan Project, the code name for the atomic bomb. The secret lab was located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. By 1945, the atomic bomb was complete. Technology and War Scientists and mathematicians worked to develop secret codes to communicate. They also worked on breaking the other sides codes. The U.S. used the Navajo language, which was never broken. TimeLine 1942 - More than 100, 00 Japanese Americans were removed from their homes on the West Coast. 1942 - The United States government began the Manhattan Project, a secret effort to build an atomic bomb. 1944 - Millions of American women worked in the countries weapons factories. Written Response How did World War II affect the American economy?