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Marketing Strategy
任維廉 教授
at NCTU, 2012
講師簡介:任維廉 (William)
現職:交通大學 管理學院 運輸科技與管理系 教授
學歷:交大 管理科學研究所 博士
經歷:交大 運輸科技與管理學系 系主任
交大 傑出教學獎
台北市交通局 顧問
新竹市政府 市政顧問
中華民國 運輸學會 理事
PCMPCL, Harvard Business School
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
1. Introduction to Marketing Strategy
2. Positioning Strategy: Target Market Selection and
Product Positioning
3. Tactical Details: The Marketing Mix (4 Ps)
4. Analysis Underlying Marketing Strategy
5. Conclusion
* Basic Marketing Mathematics
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
1. Introduction to Marketing Strategy
 There is only one valid definition of business purpose:
to create a customer. any business enterprise has only 2
basic functions: marketing and innovation. (Drucker)
 Marketing is the process via which a firm creates value
for its chosen customers.
 Marketing Strategy: sustain this process of creating and
capturing value over time.
1. Selecting a target market and determining the
desired positioning of the product in target
customers’ mind.
2. Specifying the plan for the marketing activities to
achieve the desired positioning.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Schematic of marketing process
1. Marketing analysis: Customer needs, Company
skills, Competition, Collaborators, Context. (5 Cs)
2. Creating value: Marketing segmentation, Target
market selection, Product and service positioning.
3. Capturing value, Marketing mix: Product, Place,
Promotion, Pricing. (4 Ps)
4. Sustaining value: Customer acquisition, Customer
5. Profits.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
2. Positioning Strategy (STP)
 Market Segmentation
 Target Market Selection
 Product Positioning
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
2.1 Two Key Questions
 Which potential buyers should the firm attempt to
serve? Segmentation!
 Demographic, Geographic, Life style,……
 How much customization should the firm offer?
 Mass market, Market segments, Market Niches,
e.g. 1. 特力屋:易買,易選,樂趣多(友善環境)。
2. 路邊鞋攤:專賣沒名氣但好穿的男鞋(衡外
Example of Segmentation
Based on Customer Behavior Survey
 User status: nonusers, user
 Usage rate: light, medium, heavy user
 Benefits sought: performance, price oriented
 Loyalty status: none, moderate, strong, totally loyal
 Attitude toward product: unsatisfied, satisfied, delight
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
2.2 Target Market Selection
 Comparative strengths and weaknesses (vs.
 Corporate goals, the fit of the segment with these
 Resources necessary to market successfully to the
target segment,
 Need for appropriate collaborators,
 Likely financial returns from the segment.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Positioning statements (Fill-in-the-Blank)
____________________ (Our product / brand) is
____________________(single most important claim)
among all ___________________ (competitive frame)
because __________ (single most important support).
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3. The Marketing Mix
 The 4 Ps: an aggregation, regrouping, easy-to-recall
 Product,
 Place,
 Promotion,
 Pricing.
 Blend 12 mix elements (Borden):
Merchandising / product planning, Pricing, Branding,
Channels of distribution, Personal selling, Advertising,
Promotions, Packaging, Display, Servicing,
Physical handling,
Fact finding and analysis / market research.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.1 Product: Definition
 Considered from the point of view of value
delivered to the customer.
 The physical product itself,
 Brand name,
 Company reputation,
 Presale education provided by sales people,
 Postsale technical support,
 Repair service,
 Financial plans,
 Convenient availability,
 Word-of mouth references from earlier adopters,
 Reputation of the outlet.
3.1.1 Product Line Planning Decisions
 Product line length: different price points, how many
items, e.g. 高價啤酒,低價電腦……
 Product line breadth: desired consistency or similarity,
e.g. desktop computer, laptops; men’s golf attire,
women’s line; minivan, sport-utility vehicle. (smallmotor technology, superior consumer products
marketing skills)
 Product line depth: how many types, e.g. $100 golf
sweater in 5 colors or just 3; or mixed.
 大千世界、芸芸眾生中,能被辨識出來的,總是那
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.1.1 Product Line Planning Decisions
 Considerations: satisfy target customer wants,
profitable for the firm, differentiation from competitors,
impact on the rest of the line (complement, not
substitute), or brand (company’s reputation).
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.1.2 Individual Item Decisions
 Delete an item from the line.
 Reposition an existing product within the line.
 Improve the performance of an existing product to
strengthen its positioning.
 Introduce a new product within an existing line.
 Introduce a product to establish a new line.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.1.3 The New Product Developing Process:
5 Steps Sequential Process
1. Opportunity identification: both product-market fit
and product-company fit.
2. Design.
3. Testing: survey, taste test, simulated test markets,
actual test markets.
4. Product introduction: geographic markets, same
time or sequentially over time.
5. Life cycle management: repositioning or
marketing mix change in a dynamic process,
continually learning from environment change
(customer reaction, competition, technology).
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.2 Place: Marketing Channels
 8 generic channel functions:
 Product information, product customization,
product quality assurance, lot size, product
assortment, availability, after-sale service,
 Eliminate a layer in the chain?
 The functions done by the middlemen now have
to be done by someone else.
 The 2 major decisions:
1. Channel design
2. Channel management
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.2.1 Channel Design
 Direct distribution (IBM blue suits sales force),
indirect (3rd party under contract or independently),
dual (own sales force, direct mail, Web site;
distributers, retail outlets).
 Account concentration: jet engines (few, DD);
toothpaste (ID).
 Control and direct customer contact. (e.g. 法藍瓷).
 Limit (high-end, e.g. Infinite);
Intensively distribute (more well known, customer
convenience, e.g. Coke, PC).
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.2.1 Channel Management
 Conflict between partners in a distribution system:
 Lack of congruence in goals.
e.g. 長期聲譽 vs.短期獲利
 Lack of consensus on who is doing what.
e.g. 售後服務誰負責
 Day to day work-on-it (not solve-it-once):
 Proper design of contracts,
 Good communications (feedback)
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.3 Promotion: Marketing Communications
 6 Ms model:
 Market: to whom?
 Mission: what is the objective?
 Message: what are the specific points?
 Media: which vehicles?
 Money: how much will be spent?
 Measurement: how well impact be assessed?
 Potentially expensive:
 Personal selling,
 Nonpersonal elements.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.3.1 Nonpersonal Vehicles
 Advertising in media:
 awareness, features, usage situations,
distinguishing from competitors, point of
purchase, brand image.
 Sales promotion event: actually close,
 trade promotion (advertising allowance);
consumer (cents-off coupon); retail (discount).
 Direct marketing to household:
 customized direct mail.
 Public relations: nonpaid, but less controllable,
 press releases, speeches at industry seminars,
appearance on radio on TV programs.
 Others: packaging, trade shows……
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.3.2 Personal Selling
 Interaction to potential customer:
 Take an order, providing technical support…
e.g. 新藥銷售業務拜訪醫師
 Recruiting, selecting, training programs;
evaluation, compensation, motivation plans.
 Integrated communication plans:
 People involved in decision-making unit (DMU)
 different issues.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.3.3 Constructing the Communications Mix
 Proper allocation of dollars
 Push strategy: retailer,
Pull strategy: end consumer
 Options: event sponsorship, telemarketing, own
(others) Web site, infomercials
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.4 Pricing
 Maximum price:
 Combination of product, place, promotion
determine the customer’s perception value of the
firm’s product in a given competitive context.
 Cost should act as a floor on pricing
 Effective pricing:
 Pricing objectives,
 Price customization,
 Price leadership.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.4.1 Pricing Objectives
 Skim (吸脂) strategy : maximize short-term profit,
top of the market with high value.
 e.g. hardcover books at $30 initially.
 Penetration (滲透) strategy : maximize market
penetration, sets a lower price to generate lots of
sales quickly.
 Consumers are sensitive to price, economies of
scale are important, adequate production
capacity, threat of competition .
 Difficult to increase prices later (referent point).
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.4.2 Price Customization
 Charging different customers different prices:
 yield management (airlines, car rental)
 Consideration:
 Quantity discounts,
 lower price only in a certain locations,
 Product line (hardcover / softcover),
 buyer characteristics (upgraders / new customer)
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3.4.3 Price Leadership
 Any price decision has to reflect anticipated
competitive reaction:
 Avoid price cutting, legal and price leadership :
 High fixed but low variable costs,
 Little differentiation among competitors’
 Industry growth rate is low,
 There are barriers to capacity adjustment
 Economies of scale are important.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.Analysis Underlying Marketing Strategy
 Marketing analysis: (the 5 Cs)
 Customers needs,
 Company skills,
 Competition,
 Collaborators,
 Context.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.1 Customers Analysis
1. Who is involved in the process?
2. What role does each play?
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
5 Roles in DMU
 Initiator(s): search product
 Decider(s): final decision
 Influencer(s): have input into it
 Purchaser(s): transaction
 User(s): consume
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Example of Purchase a Computer for the home
 Initiator: oldest child
 Decider (brand): a relative with computer
 Influencers: parents and all children
 Purchaser: decider
 Users: all family members
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Decision Making Process?
 Is there a search for information?
 How is that search being conducted?
 What criteria are used to evaluate alternatives?
 How important are the various attributes?
 How do DMU members interact?
 Others: where to buy, how is used……
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.2 Company Analysis
 Assessing comparative strengths and weaknesses
(vs. competition),
 Assessing product-company fit
(vs. Product-market fit):
 Finance,
 R&D capability,
 Manufacturing capability,
 Other assets.
 人無我有,人有我優,人優我轉 vs. 其他公司的機會
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.3 Competitive Analysis
 Both current and potential competitors’ strengths
and weaknesses :
 Seeks differentiation possibilities. 藍海策略
 Assess competitors’ objectives and strategies:
 Predict and shape competitive reactions. 動態競爭
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.4 Collaborators Analysis
 Partners in the marketing system:
1. Downstream retailers:
 Cost structure,
 Expectations about margins and allocation of
 Support and training requires,
 Relationship with the firm’s competitors.
2. Upstream suppliers:
 Their ability to supply quality product on a
reliable basis,
 How much lead time is required?
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4.5 Context Analysis
 Spotting important changes in context before
competitor: Context is always changing.
 Consider and monitor for signs of disruption:
 Technology: Web’s disruption,
 Culture: trends and fashions,
 Politics, regulation, law, social norms are not
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
5. Conclusion: Terms to Know
 Marketing analysis: Customer needs, Company
skills, Competition, Collaborators, Context. (5 Cs)
 Creating value: Marketing segmentation, Target
market selection, Product and service positioning.
 Capturing value, Marketing mix: Product, Place,
Promotion, Pricing. (4 Ps)
 Sustaining value: Customer acquisition, Customer
 Profits.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
6. Basic Marketing Mathematics
(1) Types of Cost
Total volume produced
Total volume produced
(a) Constant variable cost per unit
(b) Decreasing variable cost per unit
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
(2) Profit Drivers
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
(3) Break-even Volume
Fixed Cost in Dollars
 200,000 units
Dollar Margin Per Unit $3.5 / unit
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
(4) Formula of Price
TR  P  Q
TC  FC  avc  Q
  P  avc  Q  FC ……(3)
FC  
Q 
P  avc
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
 Alvin J. Silk, What Is Marketing? Harvard
Business Press, 2006/10/1