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Slide 10.1
CHAPTER 10
MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN
(CHANGE MANAGEMENT)
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.2
Tugas

Paparkanlah sebuah ide viral marketing yang dapat Anda
lakukan untuk e-commerce Anda. TULIS TANGAN
Kriteria penilaian:
90-100
Ide original, penjelasan baik dan dapat
dipahami
70-80
Ide original, namun penjelasan kurang baik
atau penjelasan baik namun ide kurang fresh
40-60
Ide dan penjelasan kurang baik
20-30
Anda memberi contekan atau menyalin teman
Anda
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.6
Tantangan Transformasi e-business
Faktor sukses perubahan:
 Keikutsertaan manajemen
 Manajemen proyek yang efektif
 Langkah-langkah untuk menarik dan menjaga
karyawan yang tepat mencapai perubahan
 Kepemilikan perubahan oleh karyawan
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Figure 10.1
Key factors in achieving change
Slide 10.8
Diskusi

Bayangkan apabila ada perubahan yang
diinformasikan oleh CEO pada 4 hal di bawah ini,
di mana perusahaan Anda adalah B2C. Apakah
yang akan menjadi reaksi Anda dan apa peran
Anda apabila Anda adalah:
 Marketing
Manager
 Warehouse Manager
 HR Manager
 IS Manager
 Karyawan Call Center
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.9
Tantangan untuk Sell Side e-commerce
The 7S strategic framework
 Strategy: Kontribusi dari e-business dalam mempengaruhi dan mendukung
strategi organisasi
 Structure: Perubahan struktur organisasi untuk mendukung e-business
 Systems: Pengembangan dari proses, prosedur atau sistem informasi untuk
mendukung e-business
 Staff: masalah perubahan staf disebabkan karena perubahan struktur dan
sistem. Contoh isu: outsourcing/insourcing, rekrutmen dan retensi, virtual
working
 Style: Bagaimana tingkah laku para manajer dalam mencapai tujuan
organisasi dan juga bagaimana budaya perusahaan
 Skills: Kebutuhan skill set yang berbeda untuk mendukung e-business
 Superordinate: Masalah supervisi, persepsi mengenai pentingnya dan
efektifitas tim e-commerce di antara manajer dan stafnya, khususnya untuk
IT dan marketing.
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.10
Tantangan Utama Implementasi ecommerce



Strategi: Kemampuan terbatas untuk mengintegrasikan
strategi internet ke dalam strategy inti marketing dan
bisnis. Hal ini dapat terlihat pada kesulitan
mendapatkan budget yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan
implementasi e-commerce
Struktur: Isu proses dan struktur, terindikasikan dengan
kesulitan mendapatkan sumberdaya dan kepemilikan
proyek dari fungsi marketing dan IT tradisional
Skill & Staff: Terlihat dari kesulitan menemukan staf
spesialis atau agen/outsource
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Figure 10.3
The main challenges of managing sell-side e-commerce (n = 84)
Source: E-consultancy (2005)
Slide 10.14
Jenis-jenis Perubahan





Incremental – penyesuaian yang relatif kecil
Discontinuous – transformasi besar-besaran (major)
Organizational – termasuk incremental maupun
discontinuous
Anticipatory – Perusahaan proaktif untuk berubah
sebelum ada kebutuhan yang mendesak untuk
berubah
Reactive – Respon langsung terhadap perubahan
dari faktor eksternal
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.15
Business process management


Peningkatan efisiensi proses dengan bantuan
software dengan cara meningkatkan aliran
informasi antar manusia pada saat melakukan
aktivitas bisnis.
Continuous, incremental change
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.16
Business Process Reengineering

Hammer and Champy (1993) defined BPR as:
Memikirkan kembali secara fundamental dan mendesain ulang proses bisnis secara
radikal untuk mencapai peningkatan dramatis pada pengukuran yang kritis dan
kontemporer akan kinerja yaitu biaya, kualitas, layanan dan kecepatan. (cost, quality,
service and speed.)




Memikirkan kembali secara fundamental– re-engineering berarti perubahan bisnis
proses yang signifikan misalnya customer service, sales order processing or
manufacturing.
Mendesain ulang secara radikal– re-engineering tidak berhubungan dengan
perubahan minor, incremental change atau otomatisasi cara kerja yang sedang
berjalan. Reengineering melibatkan pemikiran ulang secara penuh mengenai cara
kerja bisnis proses.
Peningkatan yang dramatis– Target BPR adalah peningkatan dalam puluhan atau
bahkan ratusan persen. Sedangkan otomatisasi hanya dapat meningkatkan sebanyak
1 digit saja.
Pengukuran kinerja yang kritis dan kontemporer – pengukuran dari hasil perubahan
harus mencakup cost, quality, service and speed.
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.18
Planning Change


E-business projects memerlukan pengelolaan proyek
yang baik
Effective project management must includes:
 Estimation
 Resource
allocation
 Schedule/plan
 Monitoring and control
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Figure 10.4
Stages in developing an e-business solution
Figure 10.5
An example web site development schedule for The B2C Company
Figure 10.6
Typical structure and responsibilities for a large e-commerce team
Source: E-consultancy (2005)
Slide 10.25
Outsourcing


Outside-in
Inside-out
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Advantages and disadvantages of the organizational structures shown in
Figure 10.7
Table 10.4
Figure 10.8
Options for location of control of e-commerce
Source: E-consultancy (2005)
Slide 10.37
Risk management/
Manajemen Resiko
1.
2.
3.
4.
Identifikasi resiko, termasuk probabilitas dan
dampaknya (impact)
Identifikasi solusi untuk resiko-resiko tersebut
Terapkan solusi untuk resiko yang memiliki dampak
yang paling besar dan yang paling mungkin
terjadi.
Monitor resiko untuk dapat dipelajari untuk
assessment resiko di masa depan.
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.38
Activity – identify risks for e-business
project
Risk
Probability
Impact
Solution
Insufficient senior
management commitment
5
7
Education/training/lobbying by e-business
manager to achieve buy-in
High staff turnover/key staff
leave
6
5
Use monetary incentives and improve working
environment
Project milestones not met,
overrun budget
8
6
Appoint experienced project manager and provide
support and resources needed. Manager will
perform risk management such as this
Problems with new
technology delaying
implementation (bugs, speed,
compatibility)
8
8
Allow sufficient time for volume, performance
testing
Staff resistance to change
4
4
Education, training identification of change
facilitators amongst staff
Problem with integrating with
partner’s systems (e.g.
customers or suppliers)
6
8
Tackle these issues early on, identify one contact
point/manager for each of partnerships
9
See solution to delayed implementation
New system fails after
changeover (too slow or too
many crashes)
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.39
Tugas

Anda adalah e-commerce Division Head dari
sebuah perusahaan distribusi barang elektronik
Bhinneka.co.id. Buat analisa resiko apabila Anda
memutuskan untuk insourcing delivery product Anda
sendiri, yang tadinya diserahkan kepada JNE.
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.40
Summary
1.
2.
Change as a result of e-business needs to be managed on
two levels. First, the change that needs to be managed as
part of projects to introduce e-business. Second,
organization-wide change is required for e-business.
Sound project management is required to achieve change.
Traditional project management activities such as estimation,
resource allocation, scheduling, planning and monitoring are
all important here. A project manager also needs to facilitate
change by communicating the need for change
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.41
Summary
3.
4.
Traditional lifecycle stages – analysis, design and build – can be used
to estimate the tasks required for an e-business implementation. Since
most e-business solutions will be based on tailoring off-the-shelf
packages, there will be a change in balance between the analysis,
design, build and implementation phases in comparison with a
bespoke solution. Prototyping is essential to achieve the fast
timescales required by e-business
Building a team for e-business will require technical, marketing and
project management skills. This will be difficult in the face of a
competitive marketplace for these scales and high staff turnover.
Tactics should be developed to help retain staff in this environment
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.42
Summary
5.
6.
To implement e-business, a company will need to partner with
a variety of companies. The e-business manager will need to
decide whether to outsource activities such as strategy,
content development and site promotion at the outset of an
e-business project and whether it may be necessary to bring
these activities back in-house at a later stage
Changes to organizational structures are likely to be
required to build the e-business. Coordination of e-businessrelated activities can be achieved through a working party,
e-business manager or separate department. Companies
may also spin off sell-side e-commerce to a completely
separate business
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007
Slide 10.43
Summary
7.
Managing staff responses to change is an important aspect
of change. Managers will need to consider how to achieve
commitment and action from senior managers and also how
to gain staff acceptance of the new system and new working
practices. Techniques that may be used are user education,
user involvement and achieving support from respected staff.
Companies with an outward-looking cultural orientation will
be predisposed to e-business-led change while others that
have an inward-facing, inflexible cultural orientation may
have to consider changes in culture
Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007