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Transcript
10
Crafting
the Brand Positioning
Marketing Management, 13th ed
Marketing Strategy
Segmentation
Targeting
Positioning
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-2
What is Positioning?
Positioning is the act of designing the
company’s offering and image to
occupy a distinctive place in the mind of
the target market.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-3
Value Propositions
• Perdue Chicken
• More tender golden chicken at a moderate
premium price
• Domino’s
• A good hot pizza, delivered to your door
within 30 minutes of ordering, at a
moderate price
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-4
Differentiation Strategies
Product
Personnel
Channel
Image
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-5
Product Differentiation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Product form
Features
Performance
Conformance
Durability
Reliability
Reparability
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Style
Design
Ordering ease
Delivery
Installation
Customer training
Customer consulting
Maintenance
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-6
Personnel Differentiation:
Singapore Airlines
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-7
Channel Differentiation
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-8
Image Differentiation
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-9
Claims of Product Life Cycles
• Products have a limited life
• Product sales pass through distinct
stages each with different challenges
and opportunities
• Profits rise and fall at different stages
• Products require different strategies in
each life cycle stage
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-10
Figure 10.1 Sales and
Product Life Cycle
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-11
Figure 10.3 Style, Fashion, and
Fad Life Cycles
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-12
Product Life-Cycle Marketing
Strategies
• Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage
• Improve product quality and add new product
features and improved styling
• Add new models and flanker products
• Enter new market segments
• Increase distribution coverage and enter new
distribution channels
• Shift from product-awareness advertising to
product-preference advertising
• Lower prices to attract next layer of price-sensitive
buyers
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-13
Product Life-Cycle Marketing
Strategies
•
Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage
•
Market Modification
• Expand number of brand users by:
1. Converting nonusers
2. Entering new market segments
3. Winning competitors’ customers
•
Convince current users to increase usage by:
1. Using the product on more occasions
2. Using more of the product on each occasion
3. Using the product in new ways
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-14
Product Life-Cycle Marketing
Strategies
•
Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Increase firm’s investment (to dominate the market and
strengthen its competitive position)
Maintain the firm’s investment level until the uncertainties
about the industry are resolved.
Decrease the firm’s investment level selectively by
dropping unprofitable customer groups, while
simultaneously strengthening the firm’s investment in
lucrative niches
Harvesting (“milking”) the firm’s investment to recover
cash quickly
Divesting the business quickly by disposing of its assets
as advantageously as possible.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-15
Marketing Product Modifications
• Quality
improvements
• Feature
improvements
• Style improvements
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-16
Ways to Increase Sales Volume
•
•
•
•
Convert nonusers
Enter new market segments
Attract competitors’ customers
Have consumers use the product on
more occasions
• Have consumers use more of the
product on each occasion
• Have consumers use the product in
new ways
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-17
Summary of Product Life-Cycle Characteristics, Objectives, and
Strategies
Introduction
Growth
Maturity
Sales
Low sales
Rapidly rising
sales
Peak sales
Costs
High cost per
customer
Average cost per
customer
Low cost per
customer
Profits
Negative
Rising profits
High profits
Customers
Few
Growing Number
Stable number
beginning to
decline
Characteristics
See text for complete table
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
10-18