Download Population Evolution (ch 23) Campbell PPT

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Why did this happen?
LECTURE PRESENTATIONS
For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION
Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson
Chapter 23
The Evolution of Populations
Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Did this bird evolve in its lifetime?
Average beak depth (mm)
Evidence of selection by food source.
Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
10
9
8
0
1978
1976
(similar to the (after
prior 3 years) drought)
–Three mechanisms cause
allele frequency change:
• Natural selection
• Genetic drift
• Gene flow
– Only natural selection causes adaptive
evolution
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concept 23.1: BIG PICTURE: Genetic
variation makes evolution possible
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nonheritable variation of Nemoria moths: different phenotypes due to
dietary chemicals
Natural selection can only act on variation with a genetic component
(a)
(b)
Variation Within a Population
• Both discrete and quantitative characters
contribute to variation within a population
– Discrete characters can be classified on an
either-or basis
– Quantitative characters vary along a continuum
within a population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Variation Between Populations
• Most species exhibit geographic variation,
differences between gene pools of separate
populations
• For example, Madeira is home to several
isolated populations of mice
– Chromosomal variation among populations is
due to drift, not natural selection
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 23.4
1
2.4
8.11
9.12
3.14
5.18
10.16 13.17
6
7.15
19
XX
1
2.19
3.8
4.16 5.14
9.10 11.12 13.17 15.18
6.7
XX
mummichog fish vary in a cold-adaptive allele along a temperature gradient
Ldh-Bb allele frequency
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
46
44
42
40
38
36
Latitude (ºN)
Maine
Cold (6°C)
HOW DID THIS COME TO BE?
34
32
Georgia
Warm (21ºC)
30
Sources of Genetic Variation
• New genes and alleles can arise by mutation or
gene duplication
– The average is about one mutation in every 100,000
genes per generation
– An ancestral odor-detecting gene has been duplicated
many times: humans have 1,000 copies of the gene,
mice have 1,300
– What is the consequence?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concept 23.3: Natural selection, genetic
drift, and gene flow can alter allele
frequencies in a population
• Three major factors alter allele frequencies and
bring about most evolutionary change:
1. Natural selection
2. Genetic drift
3. Gene flow
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Genetic Drift
• Genetic drift describes how allele frequencies
fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the
next due to chance events
– The smaller a sample, the greater the chance of
deviation from a predicted result
– genetic drift tends to reduce genetic variation through
losses of alleles
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Animation: Causes of Evolutionary Change
Right-click slide / select “Play”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 23.9-1
Example of Genetic drift
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CWCW
CRCR
CRCW
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CRCW
Generation 1
p (frequency of CR) = 0.7
q (frequency of CW) = 0.3
Figure 23.9-2
Example of Genetic drift
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CWCW
5
plants
leave
offspring
CRCR
CWCW
CRCW
CRCR
CWCW
CRCR
CRCW
CRCW
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CRCW
Generation 1
p (frequency of CR) = 0.7
q (frequency of CW) = 0.3
CWCW
CRCW
CRCR
CRCW
Generation 2
p = 0.5
q = 0.5
Example of Genetic drift
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CWCW
5
plants
leave
offspring
CRCR
CWCW
CRCW
CRCR
CWCW
CRCR
CRCW
CRCW
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
CRCW
Generation 1
p (frequency of CR) = 0.7
q (frequency of CW) = 0.3
CWCW
CRCW
2
plants
leave
offspring
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCW
Generation 2
p = 0.5
q = 0.5
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
CRCR
Generation 3
p = 1.0
q = 0.0
The Founder Effect
• The founder effect occurs when a few
individuals become isolated from a larger
population
 Allele frequencies in the small founder
population can be different from those in the
larger parent population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bottleneck effect
Original
population
Figure 23.10-2
Original
population
Bottlenecking
event
The bottleneck effect is a sudden reduction in population size due to a
change in the environment
If the population remains small, it may be further affected by genetic
drift
Original
population
Bottlenecking
event
Surviving
population
• How is the bottleneck effect seen in humans
affecting wild organism populations?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Effects of Genetic Drift: A Summary
1. Genetic drift is significant in small populations
2. Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to
change at random
3. Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic
variation within populations
4. Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to
become fixed
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gene Flow
• Gene flow consists of the movement of alleles
amongst populations
– Alleles can be transferred through the movement of
fertile individuals or gametes (for example, pollen)
– Gene flow tends to reduce variation among
populations over time
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Gene flow can decrease the fitness of a population
• Consider, for example, the great tit (Parus major)
on the Dutch island of Vlieland
– Mating causes gene flow between the central and
eastern populations
– Immigration from the mainland introduces alleles
that decrease fitness
– Natural selection selects for alleles that increase
fitness
– Birds in the central region with high immigration
have a lower fitness; birds in the east with low
immigration have a higher fitness
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gene flow and local adaptation
60
Survival rate (%)
50
Population in which the
surviving females
eventually bred
Central
Eastern
Central
population
NORTH SEA
Eastern
population
Vlieland,
the Netherlands
40
2 km
30
20
10
0
Females born
in central
population
Females born
in eastern
population
Parus major
• Gene flow can also increase the fitness of a
population
• Consider, for example, the spread of alleles for
resistance to insecticides
– Insecticides have been used to target mosquitoes
that carry West Nile virus and malaria
– Alleles have evolved in some populations that
confer insecticide resistance to these mosquitoes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bioflix: Selection within hypothetical
beetle population
Concept 23.4: Natural selection is the only
mechanism that consistently causes adaptive
evolution
• Evolution by natural selection involves both
chance and “sorting”
– New genetic variations (mutations) arise by
chance
– Beneficial alleles are “sorted” and favored by
natural selection
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Relative fitness is the contribution an individual
makes to the gene pool of the next generation,
relative to the contributions of other individuals
– Typically individuals are NOT in direct competition
• Selection favors certain genotypes by acting on
the phenotypes of certain organisms
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Directional, Disruptive, and Stabilizing
Selection
• Three modes of selection:
– Directional selection favors individuals at one
end of the phenotypic range
– Disruptive selection favors individuals at both
extremes of the phenotypic range
– Stabilizing selection favors intermediate
variants and acts against extreme phenotypes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Frequency of
individuals
Figure 23.13
Original
population
Evolved
population
(a) Directional selection
Original population
Phenotypes (fur color)
(b) Disruptive selection
(c) Stabilizing selection
Bones shown in
green are movable.
Ligament
Striking
adaptations
have arisen by
natural selection
Evolution over time, process and outcomes
• Natural selection increases the frequencies of
alleles that enhance survival and reproduction
• Adaptive evolution occurs as the match between
an organism and its environment increases
• Because the environment can change, adaptive
evolution is a continuous process
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Genetic drift and gene flow do not consistently
lead to adaptive evolution as they can increase
or decrease the match between an organism
and its environment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why are males prettier than females?
Why are males prettier than females?
Why are males prettier than females?
Why are males prettier than females?
Why are males prettier than females?
Why are males prettier than females?
outcome is sexual dimorphism
• Intrasexual selection is competition among
individuals of one sex (often males) for mates
of the opposite sex
• Intersexual selection, often called mate
choice, occurs when individuals of one sex
(usually females) are choosy in selecting their
mates
– Male showiness due to mate choice can
increase a male’s chances of attracting a
female, while decreasing his chances of survival
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Why do females like him the best?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Do all animal species
care about looks?
Figure 23.16
EXPERIMENT
Recording of LC
male’s call
Recording of SC
male’s call
Female gray
tree frog
LC male gray
tree frog
SC male gray
tree frog
SC sperm  Eggs  LC sperm
Offspring of
SC father
Offspring of
LC father
Survival and growth of these half-sibling offspring compared
RESULTS
Offspring Performance
1995
1996
Larval survival
LC better
NSD
Larval growth
NSD
LC better
Time to metamorphosis
LC better
(shorter)
LC better
(shorter)
NSD = no significant difference; LC better = offspring of LC males superior to
offspring of SC males.
Diploidy
• What’s the benefit?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Diploidy
• Diploidy maintains genetic variation in the form
of hidden recessive alleles
– by carrying recessive alleles that are hidden
from the effects of selection
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Balancing Selection
• Balancing selection occurs when natural
selection maintains stable frequencies of two or
more phenotypic forms in a population
• Balancing selection includes
– Heterozygote advantage
– Frequency-dependent selection
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Heterozygote Advantage
• Heterozygote advantage occurs when
heterozygotes have a higher fitness than do
both homozygotes
• Natural selection will tend to maintain two or
more alleles at that locus
• The sickle-cell allele causes mutations in
hemoglobin but also confers malaria resistance
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 23.17
Key
Frequencies of the
sickle-cell allele
0–2.5%
2.5–5.0%
Distribution of
malaria caused by
Plasmodium falciparum
(a parasitic unicellular eukaryote)
5.0–7.5%
7.5–10.0%
10.0–12.5%
>12.5%
Frequency-Dependent Selection
• In frequency-dependent selection, the fitness
of a phenotype declines if it becomes too
common in the population
• Selection can favor whichever phenotype is
less common in a population
• For example, frequency-dependent selection
selects for approximately equal numbers of
“right-mouthed” and “left-mouthed” scale-eating
fish
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 23.18
“Left-mouthed”
P. microlepis
Frequency of
“left-mouthed” individuals
1.0
“Right-mouthed”
P. microlepis
0.5
0
1981 ’82 ’83 ’84 ’85 ’86 ’87 ’88 ’89 ’90
Sample year
Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion
Perfect Organisms
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion
Perfect Organisms
1.
2.
3.
4.
Selection can act only on existing variations
Evolution is limited by historical constraints
Adaptations are often compromises
Chance, natural selection, and the
environment interact
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolutionary compromise…for the frog
Concept 23.2: The Hardy-Weinberg
equation can be used to test whether a
population is evolving
• The first step in testing whether evolution is
occurring in a population is to clarify what we
mean by a population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies
• A population is a localized group of individuals
capable of interbreeding and producing fertile
offspring
• A gene pool consists of all the alleles for all loci
in a population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
• The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that
frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a
population remain constant from generation to
generation, ∴ not evolving
– If a population does not meet the criteria of the
Hardy-Weinberg principle, it can be concluded that
the population is evolving
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• The five conditions for nonevolving populations
are rarely met in nature, and include:
1. No mutations
2. Random mating
3. No natural selection
4. Extremely large population size
5. No gene flow
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP
AREA
CANADA
ALASKA
Figure 23.6
Beaufort Sea
Porcupine
herd range
Porcupine herd
Fortymile
herd range
Fortymile herd
• By convention, if there are 2 alleles at a locus,
p and q are used to represent their
frequencies
• The frequency of all alleles in a population will
add up to 1
– For example, p + q = 1
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• For example, consider a population of
wildflowers that is incompletely dominant for
color:
– 320 red flowers (CRCR)
– 160 pink flowers (CRCW)
– 20 white flowers (CWCW)
• Calculate the number of copies of each allele:
– CR  (320  2)  160  800
– CW  (20  2)  160  200
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• To calculate the frequency of each allele:
– p  freq CR  800 / (800  200)  0.8
– q  freq CW  200 / (800  200)  0.2
• The sum of alleles is always 1
– 0.8  0.2  1
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes the
constant frequency of alleles in such a gene
pool
• Consider, for example, the same population
of 500 wildflowers and 1,000 alleles where
– p  freq CR  0.8
– q  freq CW  0.2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• If p and q represent the relative frequencies of
the only two possible alleles in a population at
a particular locus, then
– p2  2pq  q2  1
– where p2 and q2 represent the frequencies of
the homozygous genotypes and 2pq
represents the frequency of the heterozygous
genotype
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• The frequency of genotypes can be
calculated
– CRCR  p2  (0.8)2  0.64
– CRCW  2pq  2(0.8)(0.2)  0.32
– CWCW  q2  (0.2)2  0.04
• The frequency of genotypes can be
confirmed using a Punnett square
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 23.8
80% CR (p = 0.8)
20% CW (q = 0.2)
Sperm
CW (20%)
CR (80%)
CR
(80%)
64% (p2)
CRCR
Eggs
CW
16% (pq)
CRCW
4% (q2)
CWCW
16% (qp)
CRCW
(20%)
64% CRCR, 32% CRCW, and 4% CWCW
Gametes of this generation:
64% CR
(from CRCR plants)
R
+ 16% C R W
(from C C plants)
= 80% CR = 0.8 = p
4% CW
(from CWCW plants)
W
+ 16% C R W
(from C C plants)
= 20% CW = 0.2 = q
Genotypes in the next generation:
64% CRCR, 32% CRCW, and 4% CWCW plants
Applying the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
• We can assume the locus that causes
phenylketonuria (PKU) is in Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium given that:
1. The PKU gene mutation rate is low
2. Mate selection is random with respect to whether or not an
individual is a carrier for the PKU allele
3. Natural selection can only act on rare homozygous individuals
who do not follow dietary restrictions
4. The population is large
5. Migration has no effect as many other populations have similar
allele frequencies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• The occurrence of PKU is 1 per 10,000 births
 q2  0.0001
 q  0.01
• The frequency of normal alleles is
 p  1 – q  1 – 0.01  0.99
• The frequency of carriers is
 2pq  2  0.99  0.01  0.0198
 or approximately 2% of the U.S. population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Try this:
A population of mice displays the recessive
trait for loving the banjo. A survey says it is
about 20% of them.
• What % dislike the banjo?
• What is the frequency of the dominant and
recessive allele?
• What % is heterozygous for this trait?
What is the problem with dog breeding?
What is the problem with dog breeding?
• Limit genetic
variability
• Preserve
harmful
mutations
Fitness
decreased
Review quiz
1. What are the three mechanisms for
altering allele frequency?
2. What is the type of selection reflecting the
fact that really small wolves and really big
wolves don’t survive as well as mediums?
3. Draw the curve.
4. In population of fruit flies, 70% of the
gametes contain A1 alleles. If the pop in
in H-W equilibrium, what proportion carry
both A1 and A2?
0.09
Related documents