• Study Resource
• Explore

Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

CfA 1.2 m Millimeter-Wave Telescope wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
```
Noise and Interferometry
Chris Carilli (NRAO)
Mirrors + CCDs
Coherent amplifiers + Xcorr
SNR  Ssrc Aeff tint 
SNR  Ssrc Aeff t int 

References
• SIRA II (1999) Chapters 9, 28, 33
•‘The intensity interferometer,’ Hanbury-Brown and Twiss 1974
(Taylor-Francis)
•‘Letter on Brown and Twiss effect,’ E. Purcell 1956, Nature, 178,
1449
•‘Thermal noise and correlations in photon detection,’ J. Zmuidzinas
2000, Applied Optics, 42, 4989
•‘Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,’ P. Richards, J. 1994,
Applied Physics, 76, 1
• ‘Fundamentals of statistical physics,’ Reif (McGraw-Hill) Chap 9
• ‘Tools of Radio Astronomy,’ Rohlfs & Wilson (Springer)
2
Some definitions
I (or B ) = Surface Brightness : erg/s/cm 2 /Hz/sr
(= intensity)
2
S = Flux density : erg/s/cm /Hz
 I 
 I 
= Power received : erg/s  I A
= Energy : erg  I A t
S = Flux : erg/s/cm 2
P
E
tel
tel
Srms 
2kTsys
Aeff N A (N A 1)t int
Physically motivate terms
• Photon statistics: wave noise vs. shot noise (radio vs. optical)
• Quantum noise of coherent amplifiers
• Temperature in Radio Astronomy (Johnson-Nyquist resistor
noise, Antenna Temp, Brightness Temp)
• Number of independent measurements of wave form (central
limit theorem)
• Some interesting consequences
Concept 1: Photon statistics = Bose-Einstein statistics for gas
without number conservation
Thermal equilibrium => Planck distribution function (Reif 9.5.4)
n s  e
1
1
h  s /k T
ns = photon occupation number, relative number in state s
= number of photons in standing-wave mode in box at temperature T
= number of photons/s/Hz in (diffraction limited) beam in free spacea
(Richards 1994, J.Appl.Phys)

Photon noise: variance in # photons arriving each second in free space beam
n
2
s

 ns  ns

2
 ns  ns
2
(Reif 9.5.6)
n s Poisson Stats (n s  1) shot noise (noise 
ns
2
aConsider
ns )
Wave noise (n s  1) (noise  n s )
putting pin-hole in box (or TB = Tsys for a diffraction limited beam)
Optical
Physical motivation for wave noise: coherence
Single Source :IV 2 '1 photon'


Two incoherent sources :I  V12 + V2 2 '2 photons'
v
v 2
Two coherent sources :I  V1 + V2  '0 to 4 photons '
‘Bunching
of Bosons’: photons can
occupy exact same quantum state.
Restricting phase space (ie.
to interference within the beam.
h
h
h
“Think then, of a stream of wave packets each about c/ long, in
a random sequence. There is a certain probability that two such
trains accidentally overlap. When this occurs they interfere and one
may find four photons, or none, or something in between as a
result. It is proper to speak of interference in this situation because
the conditions of the experiment are just such as will ensure that
these photons are in the same quantum state. To such interference
one may ascribe the ‘abnormal’ density fluctuations in any
assemblage of bosons.” (= wave noise)
Purcell 1956, Nature, 178, 1449
Photon arrival time
Probability of detecting a second photon after interval t in a beam of linearly
polarized light with bandwidth  (Mandel 1963). Exactly the same factor 2 as
in Young 2-slit experiment!
2nd photon ignorant of 1st
Δt
Photon arrival times are
correlated on timescales
fluctuations  total flux,
ie. fluctuations are
amplified by constructive
or destructive
interference on
timescales ~ 1/ 
When is wave
noise important?
n s  e h  s /k T 1
1
ns  1
• Photon occupation
number in CMB
(2.7K)
B 
• CMB alone is
observations into 
wave noise regime
RJ
 2h 3
c2
ns
Wien
40GHz
Wien : n s 1noise  n s (counting stats)
RJ :
n s  1noise  n s (wave noise)
Photon occupation number: examples
h
Cygnus A at 1.4GHz at VLA : TA  140K 
0.0005
kT
 n s  (e
h
kT
-1)1 2000Hz 1 sec1  wave noise dominated
Optical source
Betelgeuse resolved by HST : TB  3000K h/kT  8
ns  0.0003Hz 1 sec 1 counting noise dominated
Quasar at z = 4.7 with VLA : S1.4GHz 0.2mJy (10 -7 x CygA)
TA  0.02mK  h /k T  3000 n s 1
Why do we still assume wave noise dominates in sens. equ?
Answer : TBG > 2.7K ensures n s > 1 always at cm wavelengths.
Night sky is not dark at radio frequencies!
Concept 1: Wave noise
In radio astronomy, the noise statistics are
wave noise dominated, ie. noise limit is
proportional to the total power, ns, and not
the square root of the power, ns1/2
Optical = Wien : n s 1noise  n s (counting stats)
n s  1noise  n s (wave noise)
Concept 2: Quantum noise of coherent amplifiers
Phase conserving electronics => Δφ < 1 rad
Uncertainty principle for photons :
E t  h
E  h n s

t 
 2
 n s  1 rad Hz 1 sec 1   1rad  n s  1
Phase conserving amplifier has minimum noise: ns = 1 =>
puts signal into RJ regime = wave noise dominated.
Quantum limit:
ns  (e
h / kT
Tmin  h/k
1
1) 1
Quantum noise: Einstein Coefficients and masers
I h
h

Bijn i  B jin j IAijn i
x c
4
Stimulated emission Bij


Rohlfs & Wilson equ 11.8 –11.13
Absorption : giB ji  g j Bij
8h 3
Spontaneous emission  Aij  3 Bij
c
h
Bijn i I c 2I
Stimulated
 c

Spontaneous h A n 2h 3
4  ij i
2k  2
2k
I B  2 TB  2 TB
c

Stimulated
kT
h
 B 1  Tmin 
Spontaneous
h
k
Stimluated emission =>
pay price of
spontaneous emission
Consequences: Quantum noise of coherent amplifier (nq = 1)
Coherent
amplifiers
Mirrors + beam
splitters
Direct detector: CCD
Xcorr ‘detection’
ns>>1 => QN irrelevant, use
phase coherent amplifiers
doesn’t affect SNR per pair,
Polarization and VLBI!
ns<<1 => QN disaster, use
beam splitters, mirrors, and
direct detectors
SNR per pair as N2
Concept 3: What’s all this about temperatures? JohnsonNyquist electronic noise of a resistor at TR
Johnson Noise: power
<V> = 0, but <V2>  0
T2
T1
Thermodynamic equil: T1 = T2
“Statistical fluctuations of electric charge in all conductors produce random
variations of the potential between the ends of the conductor…producing
mean-square voltage” => white noise power, <V2>/R
Analogy to modes in black body cavity (Dicke):
• Transmission line electric field standing wave modes:  = c/2l, 2c/2l… Nc/2l
• # modes (=degree freedom) in  + : <N> = 2l  / c
• Therm. Equipartion law: energy/degree of freedom: <E> ~ kT
• Energy equivalent on line in : E = <E> <N> = (kT2l) / c
• Transit time of line: t ~ l / c
• Noise power transferred from each R to line ~ E/t = PR = kTR  erg s-1
Johnson-Nyquist Noise
Thermal noise:
PR
<V2>/R = white noise power
kB = 1.27e-16 +/ 0.17 erg/K
TR
Noise power is strictly function of TR, not function of R or material.
Antenna Temperature
sky, ground, or electronics, to noise power from a load
(resistor) at temperature, TR = Johnson noise
Consider received power from a cosmic source, Psrc
• Psrc = Aeff S  erg s-1
• Equate to Johnson-Nyquist noise of resistor at TR: PR = kTR 
• ‘equivalent load’ due to source = antenna temperature, TA:
kTA  = Aeff S  => TA = Aeff S / k
Brightness Temperature
• Brightness temp = surface brightness (Jy/SR, Jy/beam, Jy/arcsec2)
•TB = temp of equivalent black body, B, with surface brightness =
source surface brightness at : I = S /  = B= kTB/ 2
• TB = 2 S / 2 k 
• TB = physical temperature for optically thick thermal object
• TA <= TB always
Source size > beam TA = TBa
source
Source size < beam TA < TB
TB
Explains the fact that
temperature in focal
plane of telescope
cannot exceed TB,src
a Consider
beam
telescope
2 coupled horns in equilibrium, and the fact that TB(horn beam) = Tsys
Concept 4: number of independent measurements of Tsys
• Limiting signal-to-noise (SNR): Standard deviation of the mean
SNR lim =
Signal
Noise per measurement

# of independent measurements
• Wave noise (ns > 1): noise per measurement = (variance)1/2 = <ns>
=> noise per measurement  total noise power  Tsys
• Recall, source signal = TA
SNRlim =
TA
Tsys
# independent measurements
• Inverting, and dividing by signal, can define ‘minimum detectable signal’:
Tlim =
Tsys
# independent measurements
Number of independent measurements
How many independent measurements are made by single
interferometer (pair ant) for total time, t, over bandwidth, ?
Et = h
E = h
t = 1
t = minimum time for independent measurement = 1/a

# independent measurements in t = t/t = t 
aMeasurements
on shorter timescales provide no new information, eg. consider
monochromatic signal => t  ∞ and single measurement dictates waveform ad infinitum
General Fourier conjugate variable relationships

t =1/
• Fourier conjugate variables: frequency – time
• If V() is Gaussian of width , then V(t ) is also Gaussian of width
= t = 1/
• Measurements of V(t) on timescales t < 1/ are correlated, ie.
not independent
• Restatement of Nyquist sampling theorem: maximum information
on band-limited signal is gained by sampling at t ~ 1/ 2. Nothing
changes on shorter timescales.
Response time of a bandpass filter
Vin(t) = (t)

Vout(t) ~ 1/
Response of RLC (tuned)
filter of bandwidth  to
impulse V(t) = (t) : decay
time ~ 1/.
Measurements on shorter
timescales are correlateda.
Response time: Vout(t) ~ 1/
aclassical
analog to concept 1 = correlated arrival time of photons
Interferometer pair: Tlim =
Tsys
# independent measurements

Tsys
 t
Antenna temp equation: TA = Aeff S / k
Sensitivity 
for interferometer pair:
Slim =
kTsys
Aeff  t
Finally, for an array, the number of independent measurements at
give time = number of pairs of antennas = NA(NA-1)/2
Slim =

kTsys
Aeff N A (N A 1) t
Can be generalized easily to: # polarizations, inhomogeneous arrays
(Ai, Ti), digital efficiency terms…
Fun with noise: Wave noise vs. counting statistics
• Received source power ~ Ssrc × Aeff
• Optical telescopes (ns < 1) => rms ~ Nγ1/2
Nγ  SsrcAeff => SNR = signal/rms  (Aeff)1/2
• Radio telescopes (ns > 1) => rms ~ ‘Nγ’
‘Nγ’  Tsys = TA + TRx + TBG + Tspill
 Faint source: TA << (TRx + TBG + Tspill) => rms dictated by
 Bright source: Tsys ~ TA  SsrcAeff => SNR independent of Aeff
Noise increases as fast as signal!
Quantum noise and the 2 slit paradox: wave-particle duality
f(τ)
Interference pattern builds up even with photon-counting experiment.
Which slit does the photon enter? With a phase conserving amplifier it seems one
could replace slit with amplifier, and both detect the photon and ‘build-up’ the
interference pattern (which we know can’t be correct). But quantum noise
dictates that the amplifier introduces 1 photon noise, such that:
ns = 1 +/- 1
and we still cannot tell which slit the photon came through!
Intensity Interferometry: ‘Hanbury-Brown – Twiss Effect’ Replace
amplifiers with square-law detector (‘photon counter’). This destroys
phase information, but cross correlation of intensities still results in a
finite correlation! Exact same phenomenon as increased correlation for t
< 1/ in photon arrival time (concept 1), ie. correlation of the wave
noise itself.
• Voltages correlate on timescales ~ 1/, with
correlation coef, 
• Intensities correlate on timescales ~ 1/,with
correlation coef, 
Advantage: timescale = 1/ not 1/
insensitive to poor optics, ‘seeing’
Lower SNR
Srms 
2kTsys
Aeff N A (N A 1)t int
• Tsys = wave noise for photons: rms  total power

• Aeff,kB = Johnson-Nyquist noise + antenna temp
definition
• t = # independent measurements of TA/Tsys per
pair of antennas
• NA = # indep. meas. for array
END
ESO
Electron statistics: Fermi-Dirac (indistiguishable particles, but number of
particles in each state = 0 or 1, or antisymmetric wave function under particle
exchange, spin ½)
eg. maximum n s  1  all states are filled  variance  0
30
Quantum limit VI: Heterodyne vs. direct detection interferometry
1/ 2

SNR Het
1/ 2  Δ ν
 N/(e h ν / k T  1)  Nn s   Het  , where N  number of elements
SNR DD
 Δ ν DD 


Betelgeuse with HST :Size  diffractio n limited beam  40mas
TB  3000 K  hν /kT  8 at 5e14 Hz
SNR Het
1/2
 N/400   DD wins
SNR DD
Cygnus A with VLA at 1.4 GHz :
hν
TA  140 K 
 0.0005
kT
SNR Het
1/ 2
 2000N   Heterodyne wins
SNR DD
Orion at 350 GHz (200 Jy) :
hν
TA  10 K 
2
kT
SNR Het
1/2
 N/4  Toss  up
SNR DD
31