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• EUVL
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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - Key accomplishments
Development of extreme ultraviolet
lithography (EUVL) for fabricating nextgeneration computer chips.
1
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Electron beam lithography - Electron energy deposition in matter
1
A study by the College of Nanoscale Science
and Engineering (CNSE) presented at the
2013 EUVL Workshop indicated that, as a
measure of electron blur, 50-100 eV electrons
easily penetrated beyond 10nm of resist
thickness (PMMA or commercial resist);
furthermore dielectric breakdown discharge is
possible.[http://www.euvlitho.com/2013/P29.P
DF G. Denbeaux et al., 2013 International
Workshop on EUV Lithography.]
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Photoresist - Chemical amplification
This parasitic exposure would
degrade the resolution of the
photoresist; for 193nm the optical
resolution is the limiting factor
anyway, but for electron beam
lithography or EUVL it is the electron
range that determines the resolution
rather than the optics.
1
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10 nanometer
SPIE 6925
(2008).[http://www.nikonprecision.co
m/ereview/spring_2010/article05.ht
ml Intel extending ArF lithography]
given the difficulty of implementing
EUVL|EUV lithography by
2015.[http://www.nikonprecision.com
/ereview/spring_2010/article05.html
CNSE Technology Development
Consortium for EUVL]
1
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Extreme UV
Its main uses are photoelectron
spectroscopy, Extreme ultraviolet
Imaging Telescope|solar imaging,
and EUVL|lithography.
1
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Lawrence Livermore Laboratory - Key accomplishments
*Development of extreme ultraviolet
lithography (EUVL) for fabricating nextgeneration computer chips.
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
Extreme ultraviolet lithography
1
'Extreme ultraviolet lithography' (also
known as EUV or EUVL) is a nextgeneration lithography technology
using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
wavelength, currently expected to be
13.5nm.
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL light source
1
while EUV sources are targeted to exceed 40
kW.[http://www.euvlitho.com/2013/S2.pdf
ASML update Nov
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL optics
1
EUVL is a significant departure from the deep
ultraviolet lithography used today
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL optics
1
The pre-production EUVL systems
built to date contain at least two
Condenser (optics)|condenser
multilayer mirrors, six projection
multilayer mirrors, and a multilayer
object (mask)
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL optics
The wafer throughput of an EUVL
exposure tool is a critical metric for
manufacturing capacity. Given that EUV
is a technology requiring high vacuum,
the throughput is limited (aside from
the source power) by the transfer of
wafers into and out of the tool chamber,
to a few wafers per hour.A. Brunton et
al., Proc. SPIE 5448, pp. 681-692 (2004).
1
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL optics
Another aspect of the pre-production
EUVL tools is the off-axis illumination (at
an angle of 6 degrees)L. Peters, Double
Patterning Leads Race for 32nm,
Semiconductor International, October
18, 2007. on a multilayer mask. The
resulting asymmetry (leading to nontelecentricity) in the diffraction pattern
causes shadowing effects which degrade
the pattern fidelity.M. Sugawara et al., J.
Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 2701 (2003).
1
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL optics
EUVL's shorter wavelength also
increases Lens flare|flare, resulting in
less than perfect image quality and
increased line width roughness.M.
Chandhok et al., J. Vac. Sci. Tech B 22,
2966 (2004).
1
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUV exposure of photoresist
1
e- + acid generator - 20eV are capable
of desorbing hydrogen and fluorine
anions from the
resist,[http://www.sematech.org/meetin
gs/archives/litho/8653/poster/P063_Yak
shinskiy_RutgersU.pdf B. Yakshinskiy
et al., Intl. Symp. on EUVL 2009] leading
to potential damage to the EUV optical
system.C. Song et al., Chem. Mater. 20,
3473–3479 (2008).
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL defects
1
EUVL faces specific defect issues analogous to
those being encountered by immersion
lithography
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUVL defects
1
Of course mask defects
are also a known source
of defects for EUVL
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUV with Double Patterning
In Intel's complementary lithography
scheme at 20nm half-pitch, EUV would be
used only in a second line-cutting
exposure after a first 193nm line-printing
exposure.[http://www.euvlitho.com/2012/P
1.pdf Intel presentation on
Complementary Lithography at 2012
International Workshop on EUV
Lithography] The cost may be compared
to the expected multiple exposures using
193nm light only
1
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - EUV with Double Patterning
Such a wavelength (~6.7nm) would be
beyond EUV, and is often referred to as
BEUV ('B'eyond 'E'xtreme
'U'ltra'V'iolet).[http://www.euvlitho.com/201
0/P14.pdf ASML presentation at 2010
International Workshop on Extreme
Ultraviolet Sources]
1
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Extreme ultraviolet lithography - Resource requirements: EUV vs. ArF immersion double patterning
1
Mizoguchi, Laser Produced Plasma EUV
Light Source Gigaphoton Update, EUVL
Source Workshop, May 12, 2008.
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