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Ch. 18 Mirrors and Lenses Milbank High School Sec. 18.1 Mirrors • Objectives – Explain how concave, convex, and plane mirrors form images. – Locate images using ray diagrams, and calculate image location and size using equations. – Explain the cause of spherical aberration and how the effect may be overcome. – Describe uses of parabolic mirrors. Plane Mirrors • • • • Plane mirrors Object Images Virtual Image Concave Mirrors • Reflects light from its inner “caved in” surface • Principal axis • Focal point • Focal Length • Real Images Concave Mirrors • Real, inverted images if object is farther from the mirror than the focal point Calculations… di is distance from the image to the mirror • Lens/Mirror Equation: d0 is the distance from the object to the mirror • Magnification: f is focal length of the mirror • Example problem Pg. 422 – Calculating the Real Image Formed by a Concave Mirror • Example problem Pg. 424 – A Concave Mirror as a Magnifier Convex Mirrors • Reflects light from its outer surface, always diverge • No real image, upright • Reduced in size (wide angle mirrors) Calculations… • Use same Lens/Mirror Equation – Focal length is negative – di is negative (image is behind the mirror) • Pg. 427 Pr. 6 Sec. 18.2 Lenses • Objectives – Describe how real and virtual images are formed by convex and concave lenses. – Locate the image with a ray diagram and find the image location and size using a mathematical model. – Define chromatic aberration and explain how it can be reduced. – Explain how optical instruments such as microscopes and telescopes work. Types of Lenses • Lens • Convex lens • Concave lens Convex lenses (converging lenses) • Produce real, inverted images if the object is farther from the lens than the focal point • If object is closer than the focal point, a virtual, upright, enlarged image is formed Concave Lenses (diverging lenses) • Produce virtual, upright, reduced images Calculations… • f is positive for convex lenses • f is negative for concave lenses • do is positive on the object side of the lens • di is positive on the other side (image side) of the lens, where images are real • di is negative on the object side of the lens where images are virtual • Ex. Prob. Pg 431 • Ex Prob. 434