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Materials For Detectors
Laboratory
A. Patelli, A. Vomiero
INFN – Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
(Italy)
Thin Films Synthesis and Surface Modifications
 Sputtering Deposition and Plasma Monitoring
AC / DC – Inert / Reactive
Langmuir Probe
Mass Spectroscopy Optical Emission Monitoring
Substrate control: Temperature / Bias
 Spin and Dip Coating
 Ion Implantation (200 kV, IMAX ~ 500 mA)
 Heat Treatments up to 1500 °C in controlled atmosphere
Characterization techniques
 Ion Beam Analysis: RBS, NRA, ERDA, m-PIXE, IBIL
 Scanning Electron Microscopy and EDS analysis
 Electric conductivity measurements
 Mechanical characterization: Microscratch Test and Nanoindentation
 Fourier Trasform Infrared Spectorscopy
 Fluorescence Spectroscopy
 Atomic Force Microscopy
Research Projects in Nuclear Physics
and Materials Science
ORGANIC
HYBRID
Wave Length Shifters (WLS) for radiation
detection and gas sensing
Photoconductive Metal-Organic Molecules for
gas sensing
Sol-Gel Glasses Doped with Scintillating Dye
Molecules and Wave Length Shifters (WLS)
Multilayered Mirrors for X-ray
INORGANIC
Nanostructured Ternary Amorphous Systems
Oxide and oxi-nitride films for tribological
applications
Collaboration with Nuclear Physics
Solid target for the measurement of 14N(p,g) reaction at energies of
astrophysical interest (LUNA-INFN)
Requirements
Proposed solution
High Radiation Resistance
(500 mA/cm2)
Low contamination
High N content
Titanium Nitride
Sputtered Thin Films
High Repeatibility
on
High Homogeneity
Suitable Substrates
RBS characterization
Energy (MeV)
0.5
30
1.0
1.5
4He+, E =2.2
0
TiN / Ti / amorph. C
Normalized Yield
25
MeV
TiN surface layer
q = 160
20
15
10
IBM geometry
5
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Ti interlayer
700
Channel
Energy (MeV)
5
0.50
0.55
Energy (MeV)
0.60
0.65
0.70
40
TiN / Ti / amorph. C
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
C substrate
TiN / Ti / amorph. C
4
Normalized Yield
Normalized Yield
30
3
2
20
10
1
Ti
N
0
180
200
220
240
Channel
260
280
0
500
520
540
560
580
Channel
600
620
640
Application to LUNA apparatus
(INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso)
4.0E+00
1st scan
3.5E+00
2nd scan
3 scan
3.0E+00
4 scan
2.5E+00
5 scan
2.0E+00
6 scan
1.5E+00
1.0E+00
7 scan
8
5.0E-01
scan 9
0.0E+00
270.000
290.000
310.000
330.000
350.000
370.000
scan 10
390.000
410.000
 Good stability under ion irradiation
(after 40 C H/H095%)
 Low contamination
 High N content
Multi-barrier deep geological radioactive waste
repository (in collaboration with CIEMAT)
The system must
guarantee the delay
of RN migration
RN diffusion studies
within the barriers
Focusing the
attention at the
bentonite / granite
interface
DOES THE CLAY PLAY A
ROLE IN THE
CONTAMINANTS
TRANSPORT THROUGH
THE ROCK BARRIER?
Migration process
Energy (MeV)
1.6
1.2
1.8
U 1 day
1.0
Normalized Yield
2.0
0.8
0.6
U 2 hours
0.4
U 5 minutes
Granite
0.2
0.0
550
600
650
700
750
800
Channel
Fe
•U diffusion in presence or in
absence of the clay
•Preferential access paths
Fe
U
•Colloids size dependence
850
Multilayer structures - applications
Magnetic multilayers
Giant Magneto-Resistance effect
Cold neutron optics
Superhard coatings
Protective films
Thermal barriers
X-rays optics
Hard X-rays
EUV - Soft X-rays
ASI project for SOLO mission
•Spectroscopy
•ML gratings
•High resolution
imaging
•X-ray microscopy
•Astronomy
•X-ray lithography
•FEL
Mo/Si and a-Si(H)/Mo multilayer mirrors
100
s=0
s=4 Å
s=6 Å
s=8 Å
Multilayer Si/Mo 50 periodi
L=69 Å
50
periods G=0.45
90
Reflectance
Riflettivita' (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
110
120
130
140
150
Lunghezza d'onda (Å)
Wavelength (Å)
160
170
Sharp
interfaces
Amplified sputtering
(Å)
First layers different
growth rate
IBIL test of radiation hardness for new polyimide
thin films
5
5
4x10
13
1.1 X 10 /cm
13
4.3 X 10 /cm
2
2
Degradation of chemical
structure induced by ion
bombardment
5
3x10
14
1.3 X 10 /cm
2
5
2x10
15
1.0 X 10 /cm
2
5
1x10
Lowering of light
emission
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
wavelength (nm)
1
(%)
200
IBIL: in time
quantification of
radiation damage
Normalized Yield
Emission Intensity
(a.u.)
5x10
0,1
0
2
4
13
fluence (10 ions / cm² )
6
Calibration of a calorimeter for underground
study of capture reaction
14000
Requirements
a1
12000
11
8
B (p,a) Be
High Current Density Precise beam energy
(<200 mA/cm2)
Yield (a.u.)
10000
8000
6000
a0
4000
2000
Accurate measurement of Q
(DQ/Q4%)
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Channel
Our contribution
Ion Implanter
Danfysik 1090
Energy calibration:
11B(p,a)8Be at 163 keV
(G = 6 keV)
Faraday cup apparatus
Perspectives for the Future ...
... in Nuclear Physics and Radiation Detection
 Highly resistant plastic scintillators for nuclear detectors and
beam monitoring of intense radiation
 Multilayer mirrors for “water-window” radiation (200-600 eV)
 WLS - Based UV Detectors
... in Materials Science and Applications
 Mixed Optical-Electrical gas sensing
 Nitride and oxinitride diffusion barriers for surface passivation
Ternary Nanostructured materials for Diffusion Barriers in
Electronics