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Instructor: Da-Fu Huang Students: M98C0209 李威德 Eden M98C0104 陳泓銚 William M98C0101 汪怡菁 Dara Quasi-Experimental Research: Vocabulary Learning Techniques All life is an experiment Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1802-1882 Introducing experimental research The most appropriate way to resolve a question about language learning or teaching is to conduct an experiment. Introducing experimental research The experience in this chapter involves an experiment comparing two ways that have been proposed to help learners study and remember second language vocabulary. Exercise 7.1 The vocabulary recall experiment There are 2 lists of 25 words each. (List A & List B) P.196 It takes 2 minutes and then write down all the words you can remember. You better have timer, watch or a partner. List A 1.Bath 2.Write 3.Bed 4.Crisp 5.Dream 6.Fresh 7.Glass 8.Shiny 9.Jar 10.Lie 11.Cup 12.Listen 13.Window 14.New 15.Pail 16.Read 17.Bright 18.Think 19.Rest 20.Bucket 21.Room 22.Sleep 23.Speak 24.Relax 25.Table List B 1.Light 2.Lamp 3.Candle 4.Bulb 5.Lantern 6.Sit 7.Stand 8.Kneel 9.Bend 10.Jump 11.Old 12.Ancient 13.Tired 14.Weak 15.Bent 16.Tire 17.Wheel 19.Gear 18.Engine 20.Door 21.Desk 22.Student 23.Teacher 24.Pencil 25.eraser List B (version of tip) Exercise 7.2 This experiment deals with learning vocabulary pairs in two languages. You will have ten seconds to practice saying the Spanish word and its English translation to yourself as many times as you can. Test E no. / Spanish /Translation 1. Caracol 2. Barro 3. Toalla 4. Vientre 5. Carpa ____________________ 6. Comedor 7. Tallarin 8. Corazon 9. Prado 10. Parabriasa Score ______ 11. Sabor 12. Pollo 13. Sabio 14. Herida 15. Lata __________________ 16. Jefe 17. Polvo 18. Espaldas 19. Helado 20. Viajero Test F no. / Spanish word / Translation 1. Tarde 2. Cama 3. Fondo 4. Ciudad 5. Payaso ________________________ 6. Postre 7. Mneca 8. Huevo 9. Bombero 10. Piso Score ______ 11. Saltamontes 12. Ayuda 13. Pulgado 14. Bolsillo 15. Arroz ________________________ 16. Arena 17. Sabana 18. Guerra 19. Mujer 20. Gusano no. / Spanish Test E / Translation 1. Caracol Snail 2. Barro Mud 3. Toalla Towel 4. Vientre Belly 5. Carpa Tent ____________________ 6. Comedor Dining room 7. Tallarin Noodle 8. Corazon Heart 9. Prado Meadow 10. Parabriasa Windshield 11. Sabor Taste 12. Pollo Chicken 13. Sabio Scholar 14. Herida Wound 15. Lata Tin can __________________ 16. Jefe Boss 17. Polvo Dust 18. Espaldas Back 19. Helado Ice cream 20. Viajero Traveler Test F no. / Spanish word / Translation 1. Tarde Afternoon 2. Cama Bed 3. Fondo Bottom 4. Ciudad City 5. Payaso Clown ________________________ 6. Postre Dessert 7. Mneca Doll 8. Huevo Egg 9. Bombero Fireman 10. Piso Floor 11. Saltamontes Grasshopper 12. Ayuda Help 13. Pulgado Inch 14. Bolsillo Pocket 15. Arroz Rice ________________________ 16. Arena Sand 17. Sabana Sheet 18. Guerra War 19. Mujer Woman 20. Gusano Worm Compiling experimental data Compile the in any way that makes sense to you as a group, in a format similar to that shown in table 7.1. Analyzing experimental data One of the women wondered if the women remember things or learn words need make a list than men. Analyzing experimental data Some of men objected, claiming they were dedicated list maker and user. Table 7.3 Example recall data (www) List A M (SD) List B M (SD) Women N=17 18.5(2.5) 22.5(2.0) Men N=17 14.5(3.5) 21.5(2.5) Computing the t-test in data analysis The t-test is the most frequently used measure in second language research when comparing mean scores for two groups. sum.of (or.add.up) Computing the t-test in data analysis SD = standard deviation X = values M = mean of the values N = number values M= mean X= values N= number of values Once you have computed these data, you will want to know if the difference between the two means is significant or not? Significance is a statistical way of talking about whether the difference between groups’ means is biggish or smallish. When comparing pairs of means the statistical measure typically used is the t-test. T test (T檢定) The t-test is the most frequently used measure in second language research when comparing mean scores for two groups. It can be used with very large or very small groups. Degrees of Freedom Group size is (roughly) adjusted for by degree of freedom. df. = N1+N2-2 =(N-1)+(n-1) Example: (17-1)+(17-1)=32 Degrees of Freedom Adjustments for differences in types of decision is made by considering one-tailed and two tailed decisions separately. T test (T檢定) w= women m= men M= mean T test (T檢定) Women (N=17) Mean M=18.5 Standard Deviation S=2.5 Men (N=17) Mean M =14.5 18.5 14.5 t Standard Deviation S=3.5 2.5 3.5 2 w 17 → 2 m 17 t= 3.83 df= 32 How should we do if the exact df is not shown in the table? The value is greater than the critical value found in the table at .01 or .05. The result means the women’s mean is significantly higher than the men’s mean score. Abstract Gender differences on list recall of 25 words Women had a mean word recall of 18.5 (SD= 2.5) Men had a mean word recall of 14.5 (SD= 3.5) A t-test analysis of the differences between means yielded a t of 3.83 This was significant at the p< .01 level (df= 32) Women were significantly better than men at remember words If the group sizes are different: The Same Result This formula could also be used in situations where the group sizes are the same. Designing Your Own Experimental Studies a) Experimental approaches to language teaching research b) The big method-comparison studies c) Creating research questions and the accompanying hypotheses d) Designing experiments to test hypotheses Experimental Approaches to Language Teaching What is experiment? “a situation in which one observes the relationship between two variables by deliberately producing a change in one and looking to see whether this alteration produces a change in the other” (Anderson 1969). True Experimental Study a) Students are randomly selected and assigned to two groups. b) Two experimental conditions or treatments are provided. c) For two groups, a pre- and post- test are given. Two groups of participants are assumed to be equivalent. Control group- it will receive a control treatment. Treatment group- it will receive the experimental treatment in the form of some new approach. XO X is some kind of educational treatment O is an observation following the treatment Campbell and Stanley note: Research today conforms to a design in which a single group only once, subsequent to some agent or treatment presumed to cause change. Limitation Second language researchers can’t obtain randomly selected groups of participants. The experiment already exists intact groups. Such variation from the formal requirements for a true experiment causes such a study to be called Quasi-Experimental. The Big Method-Comparison Studies “The age of methods” in second language instruction. There are many methods shown in Table 7.7. Many method-comparison studies were undertaken with designs hoping to approximate pure experimental studies. The research methodology of the studies was very heavily criticized. However, these research becomes the focusing of greater qualitative studies. Creating Research Questions and Hypotheses Research Questions- Questions that you will try to answer in the study Research Hypotheses- claims that you believe the experimental study might support List A: 25 randomly organized common English words. List B: 25 common English words organized into sets of five words. The researcher posed a research and hypothesis. Research Question Will List B be easier to recall than List A? Hypothesis 1a Participants will better recall words in List B than List A. ------------------------------------------------If this research is hypothesis rather than questions, experimenters must also anticipate competing hypotheses. Competing hypotheses = Alternative hypotheses Hypothesis 1b List B will promote less successful recall than allowing subjects to apply their own strategies. ------------------------------------------------1. This hypothesis is alternative hypothesis to 1a. Hypothesis 1c List B no better than List A -----------------------------------------------------1. Competing hypothesis = Null hypothesis 2. It may be that neither List A nor List B will prove superior to the other. 3. They will be equally effective. Setting up Experiments to Test Hypotheses New Experimental Research Areas in Vocabulary Learning Significance of Experimental Research in Teaching Vocabulary Research and pedagogical neglect during the 1950s and 1960s. New methodologies came in the 1970s. a) Communicative Language Learning b) Silent Way c) Suggestopedia d) Natural Approach, etc. Significance of Experimental Research in Teaching Vocabulary Krashen (1977): Commonsensical view Sound and meaning are two main elements of language. Words hold sound and meaning together. Words are combined by sounds. When you teach how sentences convey meaning, you teach how words go together. Significance of Experimental Research in Teaching Vocabulary Laufer and Hulstijn (2001): Stimulate theoretical thinking & Empirical research L2 learning = learning of large numbers of words The association of new vocabulary words with existing knowledge. Summary t Experimental subject vs. Control subject t-test: to compare mean scores for two groups Mw - Mm N w - 1Sw2 N m - 1Sm2 1 1 N N N N 2 w m m w Summary df (degree of freedom): to adjust group size (N1-1) + (N2-1) = df Table 7.5 (P. 207) Research questions or hypotheses Example Paper #1 English department students conducted remedial teaching to non-English department students Questionnaires Pre-test and Post-test XO study (1 group / 1 treatment) use of t-test T-Test Results of the Listening Comprehension Tests Groups N **p=0.05 SD t df 0.61 158 85.20 21.57 Pre-test Post-test Mean 80 83.21 19.50 T-Test Results of the Reading Comprehension Tests Groups N **p=0.05 t df 57.23 16.33 Pre-test Post-test Mean SD 80 70.99 19.95 -4.78 158 Example Paper #2 Purpose To investigate whether or not statistically significant differences exist between using the task-based approach VS the Grammar Translation Method, both integrated with computer-assisted instruction, to improve Taiwanese EFL college students’ speaking performance. Research Question Is there a significant difference between integrating the task-based approach and the Grammar Translation Method, both with computer-assisted instruction, in terms of improving Taiwanese EFL college students’ speaking performance? TBA GTM Pretest N=50 M=54.00 SD=16.78 N=43 M=52.09 SD=15.82 df= 91 t= 0.16 p>.05 Posttest N= 50 M= 58.00 SD= 16.78 N= 43 M= 45.58 SD= 21.08 df= 91 t= 5.022 p<.05 The End