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```Chapter 2
Descriptive Statistics
§ 2.4
Measures of
Variation
Range
The range of a data set is the difference between the maximum and
minimum date entries in the set.
Range = (Maximum data entry) – (Minimum data entry)
Example:
The following data are the closing prices for a certain stock
on ten successive Fridays. Find the range.
Stock
56 56 57 58 61 63
63 67 67 67
The range is 67 – 56 = 11.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
3
Deviation
The deviation of an entry x in a population data set is the difference
between the entry and the mean μ of the data set.
Deviation of x = x – μ
Example:
The following data are the closing
prices for a certain stock on five
successive Fridays. Find the
deviation of each price.
The mean stock price is
μ = 305/5 = 61.
Stock
x
56
58
61
63
67
Σx = 305
Deviation
x–μ
56 – 61 = – 5
58 – 61 = – 3
61 – 61 = 0
63 – 61 = 2
67 – 61 = 6
Σ(x – μ) = 0
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
4
Variance and Standard Deviation
The population variance of a population data set of N entries is
(x  μ )2
2
Population variance =  
.
N
“sigma
squared”
The population standard deviation of a population data set of N
entries is the square root of the population variance.
2
Population standard deviation =    
(x  μ )2
“sigma”
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
N
.
5
Finding the Population Standard Deviation
Guidelines
In Words
In Symbols
1. Find the mean of the population
data set.
μ  x
N
2. Find the deviation of each entry.
x μ
3. Square each deviation.
x  μ2
4. Add to get the sum of squares.
SS x   x  μ
5. Divide by N to get the population
variance.
6. Find the square root of the
variance to get the population
standard deviation.
2
 

Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
 x  μ
2
2
N
 x  μ
2
N
6
Finding the Sample Standard Deviation
Guidelines
In Words
In Symbols
1. Find the mean of the sample data
set.
x  x
n
2. Find the deviation of each entry.
x x
3. Square each deviation.
x  x 2
4. Add to get the sum of squares.
SS x   x  x 
5. Divide by n – 1 to get the sample
variance.
6. Find the square root of the
variance to get the sample
standard deviation.
 x  x 
s 
n 1
2
s
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
2
2
 x  x 
n 1
2
7
Finding the Population Standard Deviation
Example:
The following data are the closing prices for a certain stock on five
successive Fridays. The population mean is 61. Find the population
standard deviation.
Always positive!
Stock
x
56
58
61
63
67
Σx = 305
Deviation
x–μ
–5
–3
0
2
6
Σ(x – μ) = 0
Squared
(x – μ)2
25
9
0
4
36
Σ(x – μ)2 = 74
SS2 = Σ(x – μ)2 = 74
2 

 x  μ
2
N
 x  μ
N

74
 14.8
5
2
 14.8  3.8
σ  \$3.90
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
8
Interpreting Standard Deviation
When interpreting standard deviation, remember that is a measure
of the typical amount an entry deviates from the mean. The more
the entries are spread out, the greater the standard deviation.
14
=4
s = 1.18
12
10
8
6
4
Frequency
Frequency
14
10
8
6
4
2
2
0
0
2
4
Data value
6
=4
s=0
12
2
4
Data value
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
6
9
Empirical Rule (68-95-99.7%)
Empirical Rule
For data with a (symmetric) bell-shaped distribution, the
standard deviation has the following characteristics.
1. About 68% of the data lie within one standard
deviation of the mean.
2. About 95% of the data lie within two standard
deviations of the mean.
3. About 99.7% of the data lie within three standard
deviation of the mean.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
10
Empirical Rule (68-95-99.7%)
99.7% within 3
standard deviations
95% within 2
standard deviations
68% within
1 standard
deviation
34%
34%
2.35%
2.35%
13.5%
–4
–3
–2
–1
13.5%
0
1
2
3
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
4
11
Using the Empirical Rule
Example:
The mean value of homes on a street is \$125 thousand with a
standard deviation of \$5 thousand. The data set has a bell
shaped distribution. Estimate the percent of homes between
\$120 and \$130 thousand.
68%
105
110
115
120
125
130
μ–σ
μ
μ+σ
135
140
145
68% of the houses have a value between \$120 and \$130 thousand.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
12
Chebychev’s Theorem
The Empirical Rule is only used for symmetric
distributions.
Chebychev’s Theorem can be used for any distribution,
regardless of the shape.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
13
Chebychev’s Theorem
The portion of any data set lying within k standard
deviations (k > 1) of the mean is at least
1  12 .
k
For k = 2: In any data set, at least 1  12  1  1  3 , or 75%, of the
2
4
4
data lie within 2 standard deviations of the mean.
For k = 3: In any data set, at least 1  12  1  1  8 , or 88.9%, of the
3
9
9
data lie within 3 standard deviations of the mean.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
14
Using Chebychev’s Theorem
Example:
The mean time in a women’s 400-meter dash is 52.4
seconds with a standard deviation of 2.2 sec. At least 75%
of the women’s times will fall between what two values?
2 standard deviations

45.8
48
50.2
52.4
54.6
56.8
59
At least 75% of the women’s 400-meter dash times will fall
between 48 and 56.8 seconds.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
15
Standard Deviation for Grouped Data
(x  x )2f
Sample standard deviation = s 
n 1
where n = Σf is the number of entries in the data set, and x is the
data value or the midpoint of an interval.
Example:
The following frequency distribution represents the ages
of 30 students in a statistics class. The mean age of the
students is 30.3 years. Find the standard deviation of the
frequency distribution.
Continued.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
16
Standard Deviation for Grouped Data
The mean age of the students is 30.3 years.
Class
x
f
x–
(x –
)2
(x –
)2f
18 – 25 21.5
13
– 8.8
77.44
1006.72
26 – 33 29.5
8
– 0.8
0.64
5.12
34 – 41 37.5
4
7.2
51.84
207.36
42 – 49 45.5
3
15.2
231.04
693.12
50 – 57 53.5
2
23.2
538.24  1076.48
2988.80
n = 30
(x  x )2f
2988.8
s

 103.06  10.2
n 1
29
The standard deviation of the ages is 10.2 years.
Larson & Farber, Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 3e
17
```
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