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Active Learning Lecture Slides
For use with Classroom Response Systems
Chapter 2: Exploring Data with Graphs and
Numerical Summaries
Statistics: The Art and
Science of Learning from
Data
Second Edition
by Agresti/Franklin
2.1.1) Identify the list which contains only
categorical variables?
a) month of birth, age, favorite color
b) month of birth, height, weight
c) marital status, major in school, HIV status
d) marital status, height, favorite color
e) HIV status, marital status, GPA
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.1) Identify the list which contains only
categorical variables?
a) month of birth, age, favorite color
b) month of birth, height, weight
c) marital status, major in school, HIV status
d) marital status, height, favorite color
e) HIV status, marital status, GPA
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.2) Identify the list which contains only
quantitative variables.
a) favorite food, height, SAT score
b) weight, zip code, height
c) GPA, height, SAT score
d) time to run 15K, SAT score, HIV status
e) time to run 15K, major in school, zip code
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.2) Identify the list which contains only
quantitative variables.
a) favorite food, height, SAT score
b) weight, zip code, height
c) GPA, height, SAT score
d) time to run 15K, SAT score, HIV status
e) time to run 15K, major in school, zip code
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.3) Identify the answer choice that is an
example of a discrete quantitative variable.
a) The number of people to complete a 5K run
b) The time to complete a 5K run
c) The weight of each participant in the 5K run
d) The amount of donations received
e) The type of running shoes worn in the 5K run
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.3) Identify the answer choice that is an
example of a discrete quantitative variable.
a) The number of people to complete a 5K run
b) The time to complete a 5K run
c) The weight of each participant in the 5K run
d) The amount of donations received
e) The type of running shoes worn in the 5K run
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.4) Identify the answer choice that is an
example of a continuous quantitative variable.
a) The year a car was manufactured.
b) The country in which the car was
manufactured.
c) The number of cylinders the car has (4,6,8…)
d) The time it takes the car to reach 60 mph from
a dead stop.
e) The color of the car.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1.4) Identify the answer choice that is an
example of a continuous quantitative variable.
a) The year a car was manufactured.
b) The country in which the car was
manufactured.
c) The number of cylinders the car has (4,6,8…)
d) The time it takes the car to reach 60 mph from
a dead stop.
e) The color of the car.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.1) In 2006 the GSS asked, “How often do you
read a traditional newspaper?” (i.e. one that is
printed with ink on paper and NOT counting
what you read online). The answers are
displayed in the table below. What is the mode?
a) Every Day
b) A few times a week
c) Once a week
d) Less than once a week
e) Never
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.1) In 2006 the GSS asked, “How often do you
read a traditional newspaper?” (i.e. one that is
printed with ink on paper and NOT counting
what you read online). The answers are
displayed in the table below. What is the mode?
a) Every Day
b) A few times a week
c) Once a week
d) Less than once a week
e) Never
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.2) In 2002 the GSS asked, “How important is
it for a person to be considered an adult for
them to be no longer living in their parents’
household?”. The responses are listed in the
table below. Approximately how many
participants were asked this question?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
5
500
1000
1300
1500
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.2) In 2002 the GSS asked, “How important is
it for a person to be considered an adult for
them to be no longer living in their parents’
household?”. The responses are listed in the
table below. Approximately how many
participants were asked this question?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
5
500
1000
1300
1500
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.3) The amount of rainfall (in.) per day in July
2007 in Gainesville, Florida was recorded. A
stem-and-leaf plot of the data was made in
Minitab. What was the most rain received per
day?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0.117 inches
0.17 inches
1.17 inches
1.7 inches
11.7 inches
Stem-and-Leaf Display: Amount of Rainfall
Stem-and-leaf of Amount of Rainfall N = 31
Leaf Unit = 0.10
(27) 0 000000000000000000000000111
4 0 22
2 0 4
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 7
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.3) The amount of rainfall (in.) per day in July
2007 in Gainesville, Florida was recorded. A
stem-and-leaf plot of the data was made in
Minitab. What was the most rain received per
day?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0.117 inches
0.17 inches
1.17 inches
1.7 inches
11.7 inches
Stem-and-Leaf Display: Amount of Rainfall
Stem-and-leaf of Amount of Rainfall N = 31
Leaf Unit = 0.10
(27) 0 000000000000000000000000111
4 0 22
2 0 4
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 7
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.4) The amount of rainfall (in.) per day in July
2007 in Gainesville, Florida was recorded. A
stem-and-leaf plot of the data was made in
Minitab. What percentage of days was there
over a half an inch of rain but less than one
Stem-and-Leaf Display: Amount of Rainfall
inch of rain?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0%
3.2%
3.3%
10%
None of the above
Stem-and-leaf of Amount of Rainfall N = 31
Leaf Unit = 0.10
(27) 0 000000000000000000000000111
4 0 22
2 0 4
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 7
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.4) The amount of rainfall (in.) per day in July
2007 in Gainesville, Florida was recorded. A
stem-and-leaf plot of the data was made in
Minitab. What percentage of days was there
over a half an inch of rain but less than one
Stem-and-Leaf Display: Amount of Rainfall
inch of rain?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0%
3.2%
3.3%
10%
None of the above
Stem-and-leaf of Amount of Rainfall N = 31
Leaf Unit = 0.10
(27) 0 000000000000000000000000111
4 0 22
2 0 4
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 7
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.5) In 2005, the census bureau conducted a
survey to determine the median income per
household per state. What is the best
description of the histogram of the results?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Bi-modal
Perfectly bell shaped
Slightly left skewed
Slightly right skewed
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.2.5) In 2005, the census bureau conducted a
survey to determine the median income per
household per state. What is the best
description of the histogram of the results?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Bi-modal
Perfectly bell shaped
Slightly left skewed
Slightly right skewed
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.1) Which measure of center is most
influenced by outliers?
a) Mode
b) Median
c) Mean
d) Standard deviation
e) Variance
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.1) Which measure of center is most
influenced by outliers?
a) Mode
b) Median
c) Mean
d) Standard deviation
e) Variance
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.2) What can be said about the relationship
between the mean and median in the dotplot
below?
a) The mean is smaller
than the median.
b) The mean is bigger
than the median.
c) The mean is equal
to the median.
d) Nothing can be
determined based
on the graph.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.2) What can be said about the relationship
between the mean and median in the dotplot
below?
a) The mean is smaller
than the median.
b) The mean is bigger
than the median.
c) The mean is equal
to the median.
d) Nothing can be
determined based
on the graph.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.3) An investor was interested in determining
how much gain she had in her 401K plan in the
last 6 quarters. The data is listed below. Find
the median and the mean of the data.
-510 110 1230 1900 -680 1700
a) Mean = 1021.7
b) Mean = 1021.7
c) Mean = 625
d) Mean = 625
e) Mean = 625
Median = 670
Median = 1565
Median = 3.5
Median = 670
Median = 1565
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.3) An investor was interested in determining
how much gain she had in her 401K plan in the
last 6 quarters. The data is listed below. Find
the median and the mean of the data.
-510 110 1230 1900 -680 1700
a) Mean = 1021.7
b) Mean = 1021.7
c) Mean = 625
d) Mean = 625
e) Mean = 625
Median = 670
Median = 1565
Median = 3.5
Median = 670
Median = 1565
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.4) In 2004 one of the questions on the GSS
survey asked respondents, "To how many
service clubs do you belong?“. Find the median
from the data listed in the table below.
No. of Organizations
Frequency
1 organization
111
2 organizations
14
a) 0 organizations 3 organizations
b) 1 organization
4 organizations
c) 2 organizations 7 or more organizations
d) 3 organizations
e) Cannot be determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
14
3
1
2.3.4) In 2004 one of the questions on the GSS
survey asked respondents, "To how many
service clubs do you belong?“. Find the median
from the data listed in the table below.
No. of Organizations
Frequency
1 organization
111
2 organizations
14
a) 0 organizations 3 organizations
b) 1 organization
4 organizations
c) 2 organizations 7 or more organizations
d) 3 organizations
e) Cannot be determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
14
3
1
2.3.5) Find the median amount spent on a trip to
the mall for 60 randomly selected residents of
Atlanta, Georgia.
Stem-and-leaf of money spent N = 60
Leaf Unit = 10
a) 45 dollars
b) 46 dollars
c) 47 dollars
d) 450 dollars
e) 470 dollars
1 2 5
4 3 003
15 3 55555556789
26 4 00000000012
(11) 4 55555577788
23 5 000022
17 5 55688
12 6 00000
7 6 5689
3 7 00
1 7 5
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.3.5) Find the median amount spent on a trip to
the mall for 60 randomly selected residents of
Atlanta, Georgia.
Stem-and-leaf of money spent N = 60
Leaf Unit = 10
a) 45 dollars
b) 46 dollars
c) 47 dollars
d) 450 dollars
e) 470 dollars
1 2 5
4 3 003
15 3 55555556789
26 4 00000000012
(11) 4 55555577788
23 5 000022
17 5 55688
12 6 00000
7 6 5689
3 7 00
1 7 5
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.1) An investor was interested in determining
how much gain she had in her 401K plan in the
last 6 quarters. Find the range and the
standard deviation from the data listed below.
-510 110 1230 1900 -680 1700
a)
b)
c)
d)
Range = 2580
Range = 1220
Range = 2580
Range = 1220
Standard Deviation = 1131.7
Standard Deviation = 1131.7
Standard Deviation = 1033.1
Standard Deviation = 1033.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.1) An investor was interested in determining
how much gain she had in her 401K plan in the
last 6 quarters. Find the range and the
standard deviation from the data listed below.
-510 110 1230 1900 -680 1700
a)
b)
c)
d)
Range = 2580
Range = 1220
Range = 2580
Range = 1220
Standard Deviation = 1131.7
Standard Deviation = 1131.7
Standard Deviation = 1033.1
Standard Deviation = 1033.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.2) Which of the following is NOT a property of
the standard deviation?
a) It has the same units as the data.
b) It can never be negative.
c) It can be thought of as the average distance
from the points to the mean.
d) It can never equal zero.
e) It is not resistant to outliers.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.2) Which of the following is NOT a property of
the standard deviation?
a) It has the same units as the data.
b) It can never be negative.
c) It can be thought of as the average distance
from the points to the mean.
d) It can never equal zero.
e) It is not resistant to outliers.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.3) Suppose that the height of college males
has a bell shaped distribution with a mean of 70
inches and a standard deviation of 2 inches.
Approximately what percentage of college
males are between 66 and 74 inches?
a) 68%
b) 90%
c) 95%
d) 99.7%
e) 100%
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.3) Suppose that the height of college males
has a bell shaped distribution with a mean of 70
inches and a standard deviation of 2 inches.
Approximately what percentage of college
males are between 66 and 74 inches?
a) 68%
b) 90%
c) 95%
d) 99.7%
e) 100%
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.4) Which data set below would have a larger
standard deviation?
a) Data Set A
b) Data Set B
c) Data Set C
d) The standard deviation is the
same for all three data sets.
e) Cannot be determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.4) Which data set below would have a larger
standard deviation?
a) Data Set A
b) Data Set B
c) Data Set C
d) The standard deviation is the
same for all three data sets.
e) Cannot be determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.5) Suppose that the average salary for a K-12
teacher in South Carolina is $40,000. Which of
the following values would be a reasonable
value for the standard deviation?
a) -1,000
b) 0
c) 1,000
d) 5,000
e) 13,000
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.4.5) Suppose that the average salary for a K-12
teacher in South Carolina is $40,000. Which of
the following values would be a reasonable
value for the standard deviation?
a) -1,000
b) 0
c) 1,000
d) 5,000
e) 13,000
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.1) There are 13 students in an Introduction to
Statistics class. Find the first and third quartiles
of the scores for the class listed below.
60 65 65 70 75 75 75 80 80 80 85 85 85
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Q1 = 65
Q1 = 70
Q1 = 67.5
Q1 = 65
Q1 = 70
Q3 = 80
Q3 = 85
Q3 = 82.5
Q3 = 82.5
Q3 = 80
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.1) There are 13 students in an Introduction to
Statistics class. Find the first and third quartiles
of the scores for the class listed below.
60 65 65 70 75 75 75 80 80 80 85 85 85
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Q1 = 65
Q1 = 70
Q1 = 67.5
Q1 = 65
Q1 = 70
Q3 = 80
Q3 = 85
Q3 = 82.5
Q3 = 82.5
Q3 = 80
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.2) In Arizona the median salary for high school
academic advisors is about $35,000. Use the data
below to find the IQR for the salaries of Arizona
high school academic advisors.
x  34,000; s  4,000; Q1  29,000; Q3  38,000
a)
b)
c)
d)
IQR = $9,000
IQR = $6,000
IQR = $4,000
IQR = $3,000
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.2) In Arizona the median salary for high school
academic advisors is about $35,000. Use the data
below to find the IQR for the salaries of Arizona
high school academic advisors.
x  34,000; s  4,000; Q1  29,000; Q3  38,000
a)
b)
c)
d)
IQR = $9,000
IQR = $6,000
IQR = $4,000
IQR = $3,000
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.3) Below are some descriptive statistics about
the median household income per state. Is Puerto
Rico, with $20,107 dollars as its median income, a
potential outlier?
x  55, 062
a) Yes, it is below Q1-1.5*IQR.
b) No, it is not below Q1 -1.5*IQR.
c) Yes, it is the minimum so it is an
outlier.
d) It cannot be determined from the
given information.
s  9899
min  20107
Q1  48916
Q3  61401
max  75541
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/statemedfaminc.html
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.3) Below are some descriptive statistics about
the median household income per state. Is Puerto
Rico, with $20,107 dollars as its median income, a
potential outlier?
x  55, 062
a) Yes, it is below Q1-1.5*IQR.
b) No, it is not below Q1 -1.5*IQR.
c) Yes, it is the minimum so it is an
outlier.
d) It cannot be determined from the
given information.
s  9899
min  20107
Q1  48916
Q3  61401
max  75541
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/statemedfaminc.html
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.4) A personal trainer was interested in studying
the effects of different types of diets (liquid diet,
prepared meals, and low carb) on total weight loss
in two months. What description below best
describes the boxplots below?
a) The range of the data
sets are very similar.
b) The median weight
loss is similar for the
diets.
c) The third quartiles
weight loss is similar
for the diets.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.4) A personal trainer was interested in studying
the effects of different types of diets (liquid diet,
prepared meals, and low carb) on total weight loss
in two months. What description below best
describes the boxplots below?
a) The range of the data
sets are very similar.
b) The median weight
loss is similar for the
diets.
c) The third quartiles
weight loss is similar
for the diets.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.5) A personal trainer was interested in studying
the effects of different types of diets (liquid diet,
prepared meals, and low carb) on total weight loss
in two months. Which boxplot has the biggest
IQR?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Liquid Diet
Prepared Meals
Low Carb
They are the
same
e) Cannot be
determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.5.5) A personal trainer was interested in studying
the effects of different types of diets (liquid diet,
prepared meals, and low carb) on total weight loss
in two months. Which boxplot has the biggest
IQR?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Liquid Diet
Prepared Meals
Low Carb
They are the
same
e) Cannot be
determined
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.1) True or Not Always True: If given a choice
between a straight bar graph and a bar graph with
small figures, figures should be used because it
makes it more interesting.
a) True, graphs that use figures are more
interesting so they have a greater impact
on the audience.
b) Not Always True, great care should be
taken to make sure that the areas
represented in the graph correspond
accurately to the relative proportions.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.1) True or Not Always True: If given a choice
between a straight bar graph and a bar graph with
small figures, figures should be used because it
makes it more interesting.
a) True, graphs that use figures are more
interesting so they have a greater impact
on the audience.
b) Not Always True, great care should be
taken to make sure that the areas
represented in the graph correspond
accurately to the relative proportions.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.2) In general, when drawing graphs the vertical
axis should start with ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
zero
the minimum count for the smallest category
a number ending in “0”
an even number
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.2) In general, when drawing graphs the vertical
axis should start with ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
zero
the minimum count for the smallest category
a number ending in “0”
an even number
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.3) What can be done when you want to
compare two groups of data but the groups have
quite different values?
a) Plot the two groups on separate graphs.
b) Plot ratios using the data from the two groups
on a single graph.
c) Plot percentages using the data from the two
groups on a single graph.
d) All of the above.
e) None of the above.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.6.3) What can be done when you want to
compare two groups of data but the groups have
quite different values?
a) Plot the two groups on separate graphs.
b) Plot ratios using the data from the two groups
on a single graph.
c) Plot percentages using the data from the two
groups on a single graph.
d) All of the above.
e) None of the above.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.