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Section 7.1
Graphs of Normal Probability Distributions
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Properties of The Normal Distribution
The curve is bell-shaped with the highest
point over the mean, μ.
2
Properties of The Normal Distribution
The curve is symmetrical about a vertical
line through μ.
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Properties of The Normal Distribution
The curve approaches the horizontal axis
but never touches or crosses it.
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Properties of The Normal Distribution
The transition points between cupping
upward and downward occur
above μ + σ and μ – σ .
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Properties of The Normal Distribution
• The curve is bell-shaped with the highest
point over the mean, μ.
• The curve is symmetrical about a vertical line
through μ.
• The curve approaches the horizontal axis but
never touches or crosses it.
The transition points between cupping upward
and downward occur
above μ + σ and μ – σ .
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The Empirical Rule
Applies to any symmetrical and bell-shaped distribution
Approximately 68% of the data values lie within one
standard deviation of the mean.
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The Empirical Rule
Approximately 95% of the data values lie within two
standard deviations of the mean.
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The Empirical Rule
Almost all (approximately 99.7%) of the data values
will be within three standard deviations of the
mean.
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Application of the Empirical Rule
The life of a particular type of light bulb is
normally distributed with a mean of 1100
hours and a standard deviation of 100 hours.
What is the probability that a light bulb of this
type will last between 1000 and 1200 hours?
Approximately 68%
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Example
Male adult heights in North America are approximately normally
distributed with a mean of 70 inches and standard deviation of 4
inches.
Find the height that is
a. 3 standard deviations above the mean
b. 2 standard deviations below the mean
c. The percentage of men with heights Between 66 inches and 74
inches
d. The percentage of men with heights Between 70 inches and 74
inches
e. The percentage of men with heights above 78 inches.
Solution
a. 82 inches b. 62 inches c. 68%
d. 34% e. 2.5%
Assignment 13
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Normal Probability Distribution (calc)
• The Normal Probability Distribution menu for the TI-83+/84+ is
found under DISTR (2nd VARS).
• NOTE: A mean of zero and a standard deviation of one are
considered to be the default values for a normal distribution on
the calculator, if you choose not to set these values.
•
• The Normal Distribution functions:
#1: normalpdf pdf = Probability Density Function
This function returns the probability of a single value of the
random variable x. Use this to graph a normal curve. Using this
function returns the y-coordinates of the normal curve.
Syntax: normalpdf (x, mean, standard deviation)
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Normal Probability Distribution (calc)
#2: normalcdf cdf = Cumulative Distribution Function
This function returns the cumulative probability from zero up to
some input value of the random variable x. Technically, it returns
the percentage of area under a continuous distribution curve from
negative infinity to the x. You can, however, set the lower bound.
Syntax: normalcdf (lower bound, upper bound, mean, standard
deviation)
#3: invNorm( inv = Inverse Normal Probability Distribution Function
This function returns the x-value given the probability region to
the left of the x-value.
(0 < area < 1 must be true.) The inverse normal probability
distribution function will find the precise value at a given percent
based upon the mean and standard deviation.
Syntax: invNorm (probability, mean, standard deviation)
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Example
• Given a normal distribution of values for which the mean is 70
and the standard deviation is 4.5. Find:
a) the probability that a value is between 65 and 80,
inclusive.
b) the probability that a value is greater than or equal to 75.
c) the probability that a value is less than 62.
d) the 90th percentile for this distribution.
(answers will be rounded to the nearest thousandth)
1a: Find the probability that a value is between 65 and 80,
inclusive. (This is accomplished by finding the probability of
the cumulative interval from 65 to 80.)
Syntax: normalcdf(lower bound, upper bound, mean, standard
deviation)
• Answer: The probability is 85.361%.
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Example cont.
1b: Find the probability that a value is greater than or equal to 75.
(The upper boundary in this problem will be positive infinity. The
largest value the calculator can handle is 1 x 1099. Type 1 EE
99. Enter the EE by pressing 2nd, comma -- only one E will show on
the screen.) Answer: The probability is 13.326%.
1c: Find the probability that a value is less than 62.
(The lower boundary in this problem will be negative infinity. The
smallest value the calculator can handle is -1 x 1099. Type -1 EE
99. Enter the EE by pressing 2nd, comma -- only one E will show on
the screen.)
• Answer: The probability is 3.772%.
1d: Find the 90th percentile for this distribution.
(Given a probability region to the left of a value (i.e., a percentile),
determine the value using invNorm.)
• Answer: The x-value is 75.767.
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