Download Minerals The Geologic Alphabet • Natural • Crystalline Solid

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Definition of a Mineral
Minerals
The Geologic Alphabet
•
•
•
•
Natural
Crystalline Solid
Inorganic
Chemical Compound
Source: E. R. Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc.
Mineral Formation
Form Igneous Rocks
Primary
1. Crystallize out of a magma
2. Crystallize out of water
Form Sedimentary Rocks
Physical Properties of Minerals
A. Mineral Shape
Secondary
3. Chemical Weathering
4. Metamorphism
Form Metamorphic Rocks
Crystal Form
Aka crystal habit
Source: Jeffrey Scovil
Fracture
Quartz: Conchoidal
Mineral Cleavage
Mineral Cleavage
Halite - 3 planes; angle 90°
Muscovite - 1 plane; angle N/A
Source: Ed Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc.
Source: Breck P. Kent
Mineral Cleavage
Fluorite: 4Fluorite
planes; not 90°
Physical Properties of Minerals
B. Mineral Appearance
Color
Quartz Color
Quartz Powder
Streak (Powder Color)
Luster
Hematite
Metallic
Highly
reflected and
“metal colored”
Nonmetallic
Vitreous
Varies
Pearly
Shines like glass
Resinous
Whitish iridescence
(like a pearl)
Dull shine (like
wax)
Earthy (Dull)
Surface doesn’t
reflect light
Source: Breck P. Kent
Metallic Luster
Nonmetallic Luster - Vitreous
Quartz
Source: E. R. Degginger/Earth Scenes
Nonmetallic
Luster - Earthy
Optical Properties
1. Opaque
2. Translucent
3. Transparent
Source: Breck P. Kent
Mohs Hardness Scale
Physical Properties of Minerals
C. Mineral Strength/Density
Specific Gravity
(Density)
Magnetism
(Magnetite)
Reaction to HCl
(Calcite)
Physical Properties of Minerals
D. Other Properties
Taste
(Halite)
Striations & Banding
Smell
(Sulfur)
Fluorescence - White light
Source: Breck P. Kent
Feel
(Talc)
Fluorescence - UV light
Piezoelectricity
Source: Breck P. Kent
Petrologic Microscope
(optical properties)
Polarized Light - Calcite
Biotite in white light
Native Elements
Mineral Families
Oxides
Hematite
Pyrite
Sulfides
Gypsum
Sulfates
Carbonates
Silicates:
SiliconOxygen
Tetrahedron
Calcite
Important Silicates
Muscovite
Feldspars
Micas
Mafic Minerals
(rich in Fe & Mg—high temp)
Orthoclase
vs.
Quartz
Olivine
Felsic Minerals
rich in feldspar & silica—low temp
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