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Lecture 6
Weathering and Soil
Physical Geology
Lecture Outline
I Weathering
A)
B)
Definitions
Mechanical Weathering
C)
Chemical Weathering
i.
ii.
iii.
Frost Action
Pressure Release
Other Mechanical Processes
i.
Agents
a)
Acids
b)
Oxidation
c)
Solution Weathering
Examples
ii.
II
Soils
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
III
Definitions
Soil Horizons and Classification
Soil Character and Thickness
Organic Activity and Soil Development
Soils and Climate
Paleosols
Conclusions
Physical Geology
Weathering
Definition
weathering: the destructive processes by which rocks are
changed on exposure to atmospheric agents at or near the
earth's surface, with little or no transport of the altered
material. Specifically, it is the physical disintegration and
chemical decomposition of rock that produce an in-situ layer
of waste and prepare sediments for transportation.
Physical Geology
Weathering
Definition
Physical Geology
Weathering
Results
Smaller Pieces of Rock
Increased Surface Area
Conduits for Water
Physical Geology
Weathering
Processes
Physical Geology
Mechanical Weathering
Frost Action
Physical Geology
Mechanical Weathering
Pressure Release - Exfoliation
Physical Geology
Mechanical Weathering
Other Processes
Salt Crystal
Plant Growth
Burrowing Animals
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering: the process of weathering by which
chemical reactions(hydrolysis, hydration, oxidation,
carbonation, ion exchange and solution) transform rocks and
minerals into new chemical combinations that are stable
under conditions prevailing at or near the earth's surface.
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Agents
Acids
Oxidation
Solution Weathering
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Agents - Acids
acid: chemical compound that gives off hydrogen ions (H+)
when they dissociate in water
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Agents - Oxidation
oxidation: the process of combining w/ oxygen
Hematite
Limonite
4Fe + 3O2 -----> 2Fe2O3
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Agents - Solution Weathering
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Products
Physical Geology
Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering of Feldspar
Physical Geology
Weathering
Factors That Influence Weathering
Physical Geology
Weathering
Climate and Weathering
Physical Geology
Soil
Definitions
(1): any kind of loose, unconsolidated earth material
(engineering/construction)
(2): layer of weathered, unconsolidated material on top of
bedrock (geology)
(3): horizons of weathered, unconsolidated material that
contains organic matter and is capable of supporting plant
growth (soil science)
Physical Geology
Soils
Soil Horizons and Classification
Physical Geology
Soils
Character and Thickness
Slope
Age
Climate
Physical Geology
Soils
Organic Activity
Physical Geology
Soils
Paleosols
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