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Rocks & The Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle Notes - Advanced
Write the definition of a rock:
Rocks - A solid, naturally occurring mineral
or mineral-like substance.
Notes
Read me: Rocks vs Minerals

ROCKS
◦ SOLID MIXTURE OF
MINERALS
◦ MAY BE ORGANIC
◦ Forms naturally

MINERALS
◦ NATURALLY FORMED OF
ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS
◦ INORGANIC SOLID
◦ HAVE CRYSTALS
◦ NOT MADE OF ROCKS
◦ HAS A DEFINITE CHEMICAL
MAKEUP

MINERALS ARE CLASSIFIED BY
◦ CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Rocks vs Minerals
Rocks vs Minerals

ROCKS ARE
-CLASSIFIED BY
HOW THEY ARE
FORMED
EACH TYPE OF ROCK
IDENTIFIED BY
-COMPOSITION=
what minerals the
rock is made of.
-TEXTURE=sizes,
shapes and positions
of grains in the rocks

What rocks are made of…
THE COMPOSITION OF
ROCKS IS DETERMINED
-BY THE KIND OF
MINERALS &
-THE AMOUNT MINERALS
THAT MAKE IT UP


TYPES OF ROCKS:
1.) IGNEOUS
◦ SEDIMENTARY
◦ METAMORPHIC
TYPES OF ROCKS
FORMED WHEN MAGMA or
LAVA COOLS AND
HARDENS (SOLIDIFIES)
 2 TYPES

1. INTRUSIVE: inside earth
 MAGMA COOLS SLOWLY
BENEATH EARTH’S SURFACE
 LARGER CRYSTALS
 COARSE GRAINED (TEXTURE)
2. EXTRUSIVE: outside earth’s
surface
 LAVA COOLS QUICKLY ON THE
SURFACE
 SMALLER CRYSTALS
 FINE GRAINED (TEXTURE)

Key Words: ALL TYPES OF ROCKS CAN
BE CHANGED INTO IGNEOUS ROCK BY
MELTING & COOLING OF ANY ROCK
KEY
WORDS
MELTING
and
COOLING
Examples: Obsidian, Granite
2. Sedimentary RocksFORMED WHEN ROCKS ARE
 WEATHERED AND ERODED,
(Then) SEDIMENTS get COMPACTed AND
CEMENTed into SOLID ROCKs

3 TYPES of Sedimentary rocks:
A. ORGANIC: FOSSILIZED REMAINS OF
PLANTS OR ANIMALS
B. CLASTIC: FRAGMENTS OF OTHER ROCK ARE
COMPACTED TOGETHER
C. CHEMICAL: SEDIMENTS ARE “GLUED”
TOGETHER BY DISSOLVED MINERALS
(write in space at bottom)-TEXTURE IS
DETERMINED BY THE
SIZE OF PARTICLES OF SEDIMENT
ALL TYPES OF ROCKS CAN BE CHANGED INTO
SEDIMENTARY ROCK BY
-WEATHERING, EROSION, & SEDIMENTS
COMPACTING & CEMENTING TOGETHER

KEY WORDS
WEATHERING and
EROSION
COMPACTING and
CEMENTING
Sedimentary Rocks
SANDSTONE
LIMESTONE
COAL
CONGLOMERATE
Examples of Sedimentary rocks
3.METAMORPHIC FORMED WHEN EXISTING
ROCK IS CHANGED INTO NEW ROCK BY
THE HEATING OF THE ROCK AND
PRESSURE FROM OTHER ROCKS
AROUND IT.
 2 TYPES of Metamorphic:
A. FOLIATED: CRYSTALS ALIGNED
IN LAYERS
B. NON-FOLIATED: CRYSTALS ARRANGED
IN RANDOM MANNER

ALL TYPES OF ROCKS CAN BE CHANGED
INTO METAMORPHIC ROCK BY HEAT AND
PRESSURE
KEY
WORDS
HEAT
and
PRESSURE

Soap stone

Gniess
Examples of metamorphic rocks
Rock Cycle
THE ROCK CYCLE
 One
of the cycles of
nature that continually
limestone
recycles rocks &
materials that make up
Earth’s crust
marble
siltstone
shale
slate
gneiss
ROCK CYCLE

There are many
different paths a
rock may follow to
go through the
process of
changing from one
type of rock to
another
THE ROCK CYCLE
Gneiss
(m)
Schist
Phyllite
(m)
(m)
Siltstone
Shale
Slate
(s)
(s)
(m)
Granite
Sandstone
(i)
(s)
Quartzite
(m)
THE ROCK CYCLE
The color of rocks
may be different
because of the
Breccia Sedimentary
minerals or other
substances that make
it up.
Gneiss Metamorphic
Quartzite Metamorphic
Granite Igneous

1. Extrusive Igneous
http://www.kitsch.net/lavawalker/
2. Intrusive igneous
http://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/eps2/wisc/Lect3.html
3. Sedimentary scroll down for diagrams
http://www.theapproachinghour.com/earth/earth/the_layers_and_the_internal_struc
ture_of_earth.asp
4. http://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/High_School_Earth_Science/Sedimentary_Rocks
Sandstone
5. Organic...why coal is cool
http://geology.com/articles/coal-through-a-microscope.shtml
6. Metamorphic rock formation
http://www.docbrown.info/page21/GeoChangesANS06.htm
http://elearning.stkc.go.th/lms/html/earth_science/LOcanada2/207/1_en.htm
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