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Changing Earth’s Surface
Get ready for a demo!! 
What do you think of that?
How cool would it be to go sledding down the sand mountain?
What is erosion?
• The process by which wind, water,
ice, or gravity transports soil and
sediment from one location to
Short Movie Clip!
Erosion by Water and Ice
• Pounding waves break
rocks into pieces and
wash them away
• Currents move sand
down shore
• Running water creates
• Glaciers carve through
valleys as they move
Erosion by wind
• Deflation – fine sediment gets blown to
other locations
• Abrasion – Particles blowing in the wind
rubs against rock and wears it down
• Particles blowing in the wind are
deposited in other locations forming dunes
and other landforms.
WOW! This was the result of wind erosion!
Angle of Repose
• Mass movement is the movement of
any material down slope.
• Angle of repose is the steepest angle
where material will NOT roll down
Types of Mass Movement
1. Rock Falls
2. Landslides
3. Mudflows
4. Lahars
5. Creep
Rock Falls
• Loose rocks fall down a steep slope.
• Roads cut into a mountainside create
steep slopes. Loose rocks above fall
onto the road below.
• Sudden and rapid movement of a
large amount of material down slope.
• Slump = most common type of
– Block of material moves down slope
– Caused by heavy rain, deforestation,
construction, and earthquakes
• Rapid movement of a large mass of mud
• Caused by large amounts of water mixing with
soil and rock
• Increase chances with deforestation and
removing ground cover.
Mudflows caused by volcanoes
Travel fast! (80km/hr)
Can be as thick as cement
1. Ice melts from volcanic eruption.
2. Water mixes with soil, rock, and ash.
3. Hot mudflow rushes downhill.
Short Lahar Clip
• SLOW movement of
material downhill
• Caused by water, plant
roots, burrowing animals
and gravity.
• You’ll see: bent trees,
leaning poles, and cracked
What is…DEPOSITION?? 