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CHAPTER 3
MINERALS
http://www.gimizu.de/sgmcol/
3.1 Minerals
- Over 4,000 on Earth
- 5 common characteristics
1. Formed naturally
2. Solid
3. Unique chemical compound
4. Form crystal pattern
5. Inorganic (No Carbon)
3 Ways Minerals Form
1. Cooling of magma
2. Minerals dissolved in liquid
3. Precipitate out of solution
http://www.mountaininterval.org/photos/images/b19-roll/12-death-valley-badwater-salt-flats.jpg
- 98% of Earth’s crust is 8 minerals!
- Most minerals in Earth are
silicates (SiO ) Ex) Sand & Quartz
2
3.2 Mineral Identification
6 Physical properties
1. Color
2. Appearance
3. Hardness- How easily it can scratch
4. Luster- How light is reflected
5. Streak- Color of mineral when broken
6. Crystal System- Shape
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geology/rocks/pages/crystalsystems.shtml
Fracture- Mineral breaks jaggedly
Ex) Quartz & Pyrite
Cleavage- Mineral breaks smoothly
Ex) Mica & Graphite
Mohs Scale- Scale used to identify minerals
3.3 Uses of Minerals
Gems
http://nmnhwww.si.edu/minsci/images/gallery/gem.htm
- Rare & beautiful
- Some used for cutting, electronics
Ores
- Mined for profit!
Ex) Bauxite = Al, Magnetite = Fe
Titanium
- Lightweight, durable, doesn’t rust
- Ilmenite & rutile- 2 ores mined for titanium
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