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Matter &
The Atom
Matter
The term matter describes all of
the physical substances around us
Matter is anything that has mass
and takes up space
The Universe is made up of
matter and energy
*Matter is made up of
atoms.
*An atom is the
smallest whole particle
of matter.
* Sub-Atomic particles
are smaller than atoms
and are the tiny
particles that an atom is
made of.
Useful Models of the Atom
Bohr
Electrons move in
definite orbits
around the nucleus
More Accurate Model of the Atom
The electron cloud
AKA wave model
Spherical cloud of
varying density
Varying density
shows where an
electron is more or
less likely to be
Atomic Structure
Nucleus
– Protons
– Neutrons
Electrons
Atomic Structure
Electrons
Tiny, very light particles
Have a negative electrical charge (-)
Move around the outside of the nucleus
Atomic Structure
Protons
Much larger and heavier than electrons
Protons have a positive charge (+)
Located in the nucleus of the atom
Atomic Structure
Neutrons
Large and heavy like protons
Neutrons have no electrical charge
Located in the nucleus of the atom
Atomic Structure
Describing Atoms
Atomic Number = number of
protons
Atoms are Neutral
– # of protons = the # of electrons
Atomic Mass= the number of
protons + the number of neutrons
Ions
An atom that carries an electrical
charge is called an ion
If the atom loses electrons, the atom
becomes positively charged (because
the number of positively charged
protons will be more the number of
electrons)
If the atom gains electrons, the atom
becomes negatively charged (because
there are more negative charges than
positive)
Ions
The number of protons does not change
in an ion.
The number of neutrons does not
change in an ion.
So, both the atomic number and the
atomic mass remain the same.
Ions
This atom has lost an electron. Now it has
one more proton than electron.
One more proton means one more positive
charge.
This makes the total charge of the atom
POSITIVE.
This atom has gained an electron. Now it has
one less proton than electron.
One less proton means one less positive
charge.
This makes the total charge of the atom
NEGATIVE.
Isotopes
The number of protons for a given atom
never changes.
The number of neutrons can change.
Two atoms with different numbers of
neutrons are called isotopes
Isotopes have the same atomic #
Isotopes have different atomic Mass #’s
Isotopes
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