Atomic Structure History of Atomic Theory Democritus (460 - 370 BC) Was the first person to come up with the idea of atom Believed that all matter was composed of indivisible particles he called “ATOMS” Which is derived from the Greek word “Atomos” – meaning indivisible He also believed that different atoms: Are different sizes Have different properties Other philosophers of that time did not agree with his theories. John Dalton (1766-1844) • Dalton is the “Father of Atomic Theory” • Dalton’s ideas were so brilliant that they have remained essentially intact up to the present time and has only been slightly corrected. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1803) aka: 5 Postulates 1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. (I agree with Democritus!) 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same: - size - mass - chemical properties. 3. All atoms of different elements are different. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1803) aka: 5 Postulates 4. Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, or destroyed. **In a chemical reaction, atoms of different elements are separated, joined or rearranged. They are never changed into the atoms of another element. We will learn more later** 5. Atoms combine in definite whole number ratios to make compounds (you can’t have a ½ of a Carbon bonding with Oxygen; it’s a whole atom or no atom) Dalton’s Atomic Model •Based on Dalton’s Atomic Theory (5 postulates), most scientists in the 1800s believed that the atom was like a tiny solid ball that could not be broken up into parts. •Dalton was credited for the three Atomic Laws that were proven after his time. Dalton’s Atomic Laws 1. Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed in any physical or chemical process, just transferred. 2. Law of Constant Composition When atoms combine to form molecules, the ratio of atoms is constant. Example – H2O will always have 2 times as many Hydrogen atoms as Oxygen. Dalton’s Atomic Laws 3. Law of Multiple Proportions – if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, then the ratio of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers. Example: CO vs. CO2 Formula Ratio of N:O The Law of Conservation of Mass •When a chemical reaction occurs, mass is neither created nor destroyed but only changed. JJ Thomson (1856-1940) • Used cathode rays to prove that Dalton’s Solidball model could be broken into smaller particles •Thomson is credited with discovering electrons Cathode Ray Tubes • Cathode rays had been used for some time before Thompson’s experiments. • A cathode ray is a tube that has a piece of metal, called an electrode, at each end. Each electrode is connected to a power source (battery). • When the power is turned on, the electrodes become charged and produce a stream of charged particles. They travel from cathode, across the tube to the anode. Cathode Ray Tubes • Thomson put the tube in a magnetic field. He predicted that the stream would travel in a straight path. • Instead, he found that the path curved away from a negatively charged plate and toward a positively charged plate • Why? ----------------------------- ++++++++++++++ •Like charges repel each other, and objects with unlike charges attract each other, Thomson concluded that the stream of charged particles had electrons in them. Cathode Ray Tube Experiment Video Clip Cathode Ray Tube Experiment •Thompson Concluded: •Cathode rays are made up of invisible, negatively charged particles called Electrons. •These electrons had to come from the matter (atoms) of the negative electrode. •Since the electrodes could be made from a variety of metals, then all atoms must contain electrons! Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model •Thomson’s Plum Pudding model is a + charge sphere that has (- )charged electrons scattered inside, like “raisins” in “plum pudding”. •Overall, the atom is neutral atom because the atom had the same number of positive and negative charges. •From Thomson’s experiments, scientists concluded that atoms were not just neutral spheres, but somehow were composed of electrically charged particles. •The balance of positive and negative charge supports the neutral atom. Rutherford (1871-1937) Took Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model and added to it Used the “Gold Foil Experiment” to discover the existence of: An atomic Nucleus Protons (in later experiments) You must be able to explain the Gold Foil Experiment…it will be on the CST Gold Foil Experiment Rutherford directed a narrow beam of alpha particles (+ charges) at a thin piece of gold foil. Based on observations from other experiments involving alpha particles, he predicted that the (+) charges would go through the foil Results from Gold Foil Experiment •Rutherford found that every once and a while, a + particle was deflected bounced back. (about 1% of the time) •Why? •Because the + charge hit a central mass of positive charge and was repelled. The Gold Foil Experiment The Nuclear Model of the Atom •To explain the results of the experiment, Rutherford’s team proposed a new model of the atom. Conclusions from Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment (memorize this!) • The atom contains a positively charged “nucleus” •This nucleus contains almost all of the mass of the atom, but occupies a very small volume of the atom. •The negatively charged electrons occupied most of the volume of the atom. • The atom is mostly empty space. Rutherford’s Planetary Model • To explain his observations, Rutherford developed a new model •The electrons orbit the nucleus like the planets revolve around the sun. Bohr (1885-1962) Worked in Rutherford’s lab Wondered why – electrons are not attracted to the + nucleus and cluster around it Disproved Rutherford’s Planetary Model Experimented with light and its interaction with matter to develop a new model. Bohr’s Energy Level Model Energy Level Model: Electrons are arranged in circles around the nucleus. Each circle has a different energy. •Electrons are in constant motion, traveling around the circle at the speed of light. •Electrons can “jump” from one circle to the next •But they can’t go to the nucleus they traveling too fast to be fully attracted. Bohr’s Energy Level Model He proposed the following: 1. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus 2. Electrons can only be certain distances from the nucleus. 3. The electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed energy levels. 4. The electrons must absorb or emit a fixed amount of energy to travel between these energy levels Review Who is the father of atomic theory? Dalton What was the first model of the atom? Dalton’s Tiny Ball Model What are Dalton’s 3 Laws? Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Constant Composition, Law of Multiple Porportion Review How were Thomson’s and Dalton’s model different? Dalton’s model was 1 sphere that cannot be divided, Thomson had the plum pudding where electrons are randomly spread throughout a positively charged sphere. What did Thomson find out? Atoms have electrons, they have a - charge Review What were Rutherford’s conclusions from the Gold Foil Experiment? Atom has a positively charged nucleus electrons are outside, atoms are mostly empty Nucleus contains most of the mass.