Download Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Mohammed, D

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Climate change, industry and society wikipedia, lookup

Surveys of scientists' views on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on humans wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Scientific opinion on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

Climatic Research Unit documents wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

Attribution of recent climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in the United States wikipedia, lookup

Climate sensitivity wikipedia, lookup

Media coverage of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

General circulation model wikipedia, lookup

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Tuvalu wikipedia, lookup

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme wikipedia, lookup

Instrumental temperature record wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate engineering wikipedia, lookup

Climate governance wikipedia, lookup

Climate change adaptation wikipedia, lookup

Global warming controversy wikipedia, lookup

Economics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Fred Singer wikipedia, lookup

Climate change denial wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Michael E. Mann wikipedia, lookup

Climatic Research Unit email controversy wikipedia, lookup

Soon and Baliunas controversy wikipedia, lookup

Climate resilience wikipedia, lookup

Heaven and Earth (book) wikipedia, lookup

ExxonMobil climate change controversy wikipedia, lookup

2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference wikipedia, lookup

German Climate Action Plan 2050 wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Saskatchewan wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS)
e-ISSN: 2319-2380, p-ISSN: 2319-2372. Volume 5, Issue 4 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 61-66
www.iosrjournals.org
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop
Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Mohammed, D1*., Kwaghe, P. V2., Bukar, U3. and Umar, J4.
Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Email:
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maiduguri Email:
Department of Agriculture, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Abstract: This study examined the economics of adaptation to climate change among crop farmers in
Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting nine communities from three
local government areas of zone one of Adamawa Agricultural Development Programme (AADP). Data were
collected from 250 selected respondents through the use of questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that
83.83% of the respondents were aware of climate change through extension agents (44.19%), friends and
neighbours (34.83%) and contact farmers (34.83%). Major adaptation strategies practiced by respondents in
the study area were mixed/multiple cropping (34.71%), early planting (16.27%) and use of crop variety tolerant
to new climate regime (15.62%). The result of the study also revealed that 77.35% of the respondents practiced
multiple adaptation strategies of two, three and four. Costs/ha of crop enterprises based on one, two, three and
four adaptation practices were N32,607, N34,400. N30,250 and N32,550 while their corresponding gross
margin/ha were N37,283, N43,800, N50,950 and N52,650 respectively. The result depict that the higher the
extent of adaptation practiced by respondents, the more the profit of crop enterprises. Mixed/multiple cropping
had the highest returns/ha (N43,450) among the adaptation strategies practiced solely. This was followed by the
use of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime (N38,800) and the use of cover crop/mulching (N36,100). It is
recommended that farmers should be encouraged to practice multiple adaptation strategies as they yield more
return per hectare.
Keywords: Economics, Adaptation. Crop farmers, Adamawa State, Nigeria
I.
Introduction
Climate change constitutes a very serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and food security
in many parts of the world (Adebayo et al. 2012). Studies such as Mendelsohn et al. (2000); Paavola (2006);
Ozor and Cynthia (2010) indicated that temperature is rising and rainfall frequency and intensity is fluctuating.
In Nigeria, analysis of long- term meteorological data (temperature, rainfall, dust haze) show discernable
evidence of climate change (NIMET, 2008 cited in WEP, 2011). Anuforom (2010); Odjugo (2010) observed
that within 105 years, temperatures increased by 1.20 C and 20C in the coastal cities of Niger Delta and northern
extreme of Nigeria respectively. In Adamawa State, analysis of climate data (temperature and precipitation)
over 25 years (1980-2005) reveals that temperature had increased by 0.3oC and rainfall fluctuated over the years
(Adebayo, 2010; Sawa and Adebayo, 2010; Audu, 2013). . This leads to warmer seasons; increased frequency
and intensity of weather extreme events such as drought, decline in rainfall amount by about 15-20%, increased
incidence of dry spell (Adebayo, 1998; Anuforom, 2010).
Climate change impacts on agriculture include biological effect on crop yield, the resulting impact on
prices, production, consumption and the impact on per capital calorie consumption and malnutrition. Climate
change is increasing production risks in many farming systems and reducing the ability of farmers and rural
communities to manage these risks on their own. Without appropriate responses climate change is likely to
constrain economic development and poverty reduction efforts and exacerbate already pressing difficulties.
Countries with economies rooted in climate sensitive sectors like agriculture, fisheries and forestry are expected
to be hardest hit. Nigeria has been recognized as country in Sub Saharan Africa which is very vulnerable to
climate change (IPCC, 2007; BNRCC, 2008). This is due to the fact that majority of the countries’ population
engage in agriculture as their primary occupation and agriculture in the country is mainly rain fed. Food
production will be adversely affected by the variability in timing and amount of rainfall and heat stress and the
consequence is an increase in food shortages and many farmers could lose their sources of livelihood due to
climate change. Benhin (2006); Mano and Nhemachena (2006); Seo and Mendelsohn (2006) observed that
climate attributes (temperature and precipitation) affect net farm revenue and such impacts can be significantly
reduced through adaptation.
Adaptation is widely recognized as a vital component of any policy response to climate change. Studies
show that without adaptation, climate change is generally detrimental to the agricultural sector, but with
www.iosrjournals.org
61 | Page
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
adaptation vulnerability can largely be reduced (Easterling et al. 1993; Smith and Skinner, 2002) and then
identify useful adaptation options and implement them (Maddison, 2006). Many adaptation strategies have been
suggested in the literature and farmers have being practicing them. Little knowledge exists however, on the
economic aspect of these adaptation strategies practiced by farmers particularly in the study area. This study
therefore, was designed to fill in this gab in knowledge. The study is intended to answer the following research
questions:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Are farmers aware of climate change in the study area?
What are the adaptation strategies to climate change practiced by respondents in the study area?
To what intensity do farmers use adaptation strategies to climate change in the study area?
What are the costs and returns of crop enterprises based on adaptation strategies?
II.
Methodology Of The Study
The study was carried out in zone one of Adamawa State Agricultural Development Programme
/
0
/
(ADADP). The area is located in the North-eastern part of the State between latitudes 100 21 and 13 30 North of
0
/
/
the equator and longitude 13 10 and 130 40 East of the Greenwich meridian (Microsoft Student, 2009). The
study area had population of about 681,353 (NPC, 2006), with 2012 projected population estimate of 823,094
based on 3.2% population growth rate. The area comprises five local government areas, namely, Madagali,
Michika, Mubi North, Mubi South and Maiha. Major crops grown in the area include Maize, Sorghum,
Groundnut, Cowpea and Rice (Sajo and Kadams, 1999). The Vegetation of the area is characterized of Sudan
Savannah towards extreme North and Northern Guinea Savannah for the remaining part of the area (Adebayo,
1999). The area has two seasons; dry and wet seasons, the month of May to November constitute the wet
season, while the dry season commences in November and ends in April. The annual rainfall range is 800mm in
o
the extreme north to 1000mm in the remaining part of the area. Maximum temperatures can reach up to 40 C in
o
April and minimum temperature can be as low as 18 C between December and January (Adebayo, 1999). Due
to low rainfall and frequent dry spells in the study area, farmers suffer reduced crop yield, shortage of water and
biomass for animals (Adebayo et al. 2012).
Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. In the first
stage, three local government areas were randomly selected. The second stage involved random selection of
three communities from each of the three local government areas selected giving a total of nine (9) communities
used for the study. Lastly, fifteen percent (15%) of the registered farmers from the sampled communities were
selected from a sampling frame that was obtained from ADADP, giving a total of 250 selected respondents for
the study. Data were collected with the use of questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, mean
and percentages) and budgetary technique (gross margin) were used to analyse the data obtained. The empirical
model of gross margin was expressed thus:
GMi = ∑PiQi - ∑CjXj ----------------------------------------------------------- (2)
i=1
j=1
Where;
GMi= Gross Margin of enterprise i (N/ha)
Pi = Unit price of product i (N)
Qi = Quantity of product i produced (Kg)
Cj = Unit cost of variable input j (N)
Xj = Quantity of variable input j used (Kg)
∑ = Summation
GM was used under the assumption that the fixed cost of production was negligible.
III.
Results And Discussion
Awareness of Climate Change
Result on awareness of climate change by respondents indicates that greater part (83.83%) of the
respondents is aware of the menace, while 16.17% are not (Table 1). This implies that majority of the
respondents noticed in one way or the other changes in the climatic variables which affect their agricultural
activities. This finding concurred with the earlier studies by Idrisa et al. (2012); Adebayo et al. (2012) who
observed that about 82% and 96% of farmers in the Sahel Savanna of Borno State and Adamawa State, Nigeria
are aware of climate change respectively. Farmer’s awareness of changes in climatic factors (temperature,
precipitation, humidity) over time is important for adaptation decision making. It helps farmers reduce risk and
uncertainty associated with the climate.
www.iosrjournals.org
62 | Page
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Table 1 Awareness of Climate Change by Respondents (n=235)
Aware
Not Aware
Frequency
197
38
Percentage (%)
83.83
16.17
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Adaptation Strategies Practiced by Respondents
The result on adaptation strategies used by respondents reveals that 81.22% of the respondents
practiced multiple cropping, 38.07% practiced early planting while 47.70% of the respondents used cover
crop/mulching as an adaptation strategy. The study also reveals that 36.55% of the respondents used crop
varieties tolerant to existing climate regime, 7.11% practiced irrigation supplementation, 12.69% practiced the
use of intensive application of chemical/fertilizer and 11.68% practiced planting deeper than usual as adaptation
strategy (Table 2).
Table 2 Distribution of Respondents based on Adaptation Strategies Practiced (n= 197)
Adaptation Strategy Practiced
Frequency*
Multiple cropping
160
Early Planting
75
Use of Cover crop/Mulching
92
Use of crop variety tolerant to
climate regime
72
Irrigation supplementation
14
Intensive use of Chemical/fertilizer
25
Planting Deeper than usual
23
Percentage (%)
81.22
38.07
46.70
36.55
07.11
12.69
11.68
Source: Field Survey, 2012
*Frequency based on multiple responses
In Nigeria, the practice of multiple cropping could have been intensified as a result of climate change.
This is because different crops have different level of resilience to weather situations; hence planting many
crops in the field could ensure that farmers get some output in the face of extreme climate events. Multiple
cropping is also a measure of diversification by the farmers. The main trust of early planting as an adaptation
strategy was to ensure that critical growth stage of crop did not coincide with very harsh conditions in the
season. The frequent occurrence of dry spell is devastating to crop production; hence farmers plant early enough
in order to avoid such coinciding with the most sensitive growth stage of crop. Also the excessive application of
chemical and fertilizer were used to manage crops in order to avoid dry spell coinciding with sensitive growth
stage of crops.
The use of cover cropping/mulching was used by respondents as a soil conservation measures. These
techniques were aimed at preventing excessive moisture loss, increased soil aeration and enhance soil moisture
holding capacity. It is a common knowledge that increased temperature and reduced rainfall are among the most
common manifestations of climate change. The use of cover cops/mulching therefore, help farmers to conserve
the little moisture they get in the face of climate change. The major trust of using crop variety tolerant to new
climate regime is to use crop variety that thrives well in the face of climate change. Given the high frequency of
mid-season dry spells and shortening of the rainy season in the study area, farmers used short season and
drought resistant crop varieties. Instead of using local crop variety, respondents opted for hybrid that takes short
period to mature and yield more than traditional varieties.
Intensity of Use of Adaptation Strategies
Intensity of use of adaptation strategies was measured by the number of adaptation strategy (ies)
practiced by respondents. Result reveals that majority (49.24%) of respondents practiced three adaptation
measures on their farms, 25.89% practiced two strategies and 21.83% practiced only one adaptation strategy. A
dismal (3.05%) of the respondents practiced four adaptation strategies on their farms at a go (Table 3).
Table 3 Distribution of Respondents based on Intensity of use of Adaptation Strategies (n= 197)
Intensity of Use
1
2
3
4
Frequency
43
51
97
06
Percentage (%)
21.83
25.89
49.24
03.05
Source: Field Survey, 2012
It can be deduced from the above result that overwhelming majority (77.35%) of the respondents
practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme
climatic conditions. This result corroborated the previous findings of Eileen (2009); Oyerinde and Osanyande
www.iosrjournals.org
63 | Page
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
(2010) who observed that farmers practiced adaptation strategies in complementary way rather than taking them
as an independent strategy.
Assessment of respondents based on practice of one adaptation strategy reveals that 41.86% of
respondents used multiple cropping, 34.88% practiced crop variety that are tolerant to new climate regime,
18.60% practiced the use of cover crop/mulching and only 4.65% practiced early planting as sole adaptation
strategy. The higher percentage of respondents that practiced multiple cropping solely could be attributed to the
fact that it was regarded as a tradition. It was however, intensified as a result of climate change.
Table 4 Distribution of Respondents based on practice of one Adaptation Strategy (n=43)
Adaptation Strategy
Multiple cropping
Early Planting
Use of cover crop/mulching
Use of crop variety tolerant
to new climate regime
Frequency
18
2
8
Percentage (%)
41.86
4.65
18.60
15
34.88
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Cost and Return of Crop Enterprises based on Intensity of Use of Adaptation Strategies
Table 5 reveals that respondents who practiced only one adaptation strategy had average gross margin
of N37,283.00/ha while those who practiced two adaptation strategies had gross margin of N43,800.00/ha.
Respondents that practice three adaptation strategies had average gross margin of N50, 950.00/ha and those
practiced four adaptation strategies had gross margin of N52,650.00/ha. From the foregoing, it can be deduced
that the higher the intensity of adaptation practices by respondents, the higher the gross margin of crop
enterprise. This could be attributed to the fact that practicing more than one adaptation strategy could enable
farmers cope many climatic variables. This led to the higher output, hence higher gross margin per hectare.
Almost all the respondents of the study practiced multiple cropping perhaps, the reason of the high gross margin
for respondents that practiced two or more adaptation strategies on their farms.
Table 5 Costs and Returns of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies based on Intensity of practice
Intensity/Cost per ha
Gross Revenue (GR)
Variable Costs
Seed
Fertilizer
Chemical
Labour
TVC
GM (GR- TVC)
1(N/ha)
2(N/ha)
3(N/ha)
69890
78200
1935(5.93)
6969(21.37)
3530(10.83)
20173(62.48)
32607
37283
2750(7.99)
8250(23.98)
6500(18.89)
16900(49.13)
34400
43800
4(N/ha)
81200
2500(8.26)
7250(23.97)
5500(18.18)
15000(49.59)
30250
50950
85200
3100 (9.52 )
7950 (24.42)
4800(14.75)
16700(51.30)
32550
52650
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Figures in parenthesis are the percentage contribution of the variable inputs to TVC
Result on the gross margin of crop enterprise (s) based on the use of one adaptation strategies reveals
that multiple cropping had the highest gross margin (N43,450/ha) among the four adaptation strategies that were
practiced solely. This was followed by the use of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime (N38,800/ha) and
use of cover crop/mulching (N36,100/ha). The gross margin that accrued from the use of early planting was
N30,750/ha (Table 4.9). Impliedly, multiple cropping and use of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime had
the highest gross margin per hectare respectively as revealed by the study. The result of this study was in line
with that of Enete et al. (2011) who observed that multiple/intercropping had the highest Profitability Index (PI)
i.e return per unit investment among the adaptation strategies considered. John (2009) also reported that mixed
cropping had the highest gross margin among the drought coping strategies practiced by crop farmers in Borno
State, Nigeria.
Looking at the cost components of the adaptation strategies revealed that labour account for 68.03% of
the total cost of crop enterprise in multiple cropping, followed by use of cover crop/mulching (63.27%) and use
of crop variety tolerant to new climate regime (58.63%). It is obvious that much labour is required in mixed
cropping especially in planting, harvesting and processing. The cost of seed was higher (24.43%) of the total
cost of crop enterprise in the use of crop varieties tolerant to new climate regime, because respondents used
hybrid seeds that are costly.
www.iosrjournals.org
64 | Page
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Table 6 Costs and Returns of crop enterprises based on practice of one Adaptation Strategy
Adaptation Strategy/Cost per hectare
MC(N/ha)
EP(N/ha)
UCCM(N/ha)
UNCV(N/ha)
Gross Revenue (GR) 80200
59850
68500
69500
Variable cost
Seed
1750 (4.76)
2000(6.87)
1600 (4.94)
2500 (8.14)
Fertilizer
6500(17.69)
6000 (20.62)
7000 (21.60)
7500 (24.43)
Chemical
3500 (9.53)
4600 (15.81)
3300 (10.19)
2700 (8.79)
Labour
25000 (68.03)
16500 (56.70)
20500 (63.27)
18000 (58.63)
TVC
36750
29100
32400
307 00
GM
43450
30750
36100
38800
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Figures in parenthesis are the percentage contribution of the variable inputs to TVC
MMC= Multiple Cropping EP= Early Planting UCCM = Use of Cover Crop/Mulching UNCV= Use of Crop
Variety Tolerant to new Climate Regime TVC = Total Variable Cost GR= Gross Revenue GM= Gross Margin
IV.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study analysed the economics of adaptation to climate change in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The
study concludes that majority of the respondents is aware of climate change. Major adaptation strategies
practiced by respondent in the study area were multiple cropping, cover crop/mulching, early planting and the
use of new crop variety tolerant to new climate regime. The study revealed that greater part (77.35%) of
respondents practiced multiple adaptation strategies of 2, 3 and 4. The higher the intensity of adaptation
strategies practiced by respondents, the more the profit of crop enterprises. Multiple cropping had the highest
returns/ha among the adaptation strategies practiced solely. This was followed by the use of crop variety tolerant
to climate regime and the use of cover crop/mulching.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered:
i. Farmers should be encouraged to practice multiple adaptation strategies because the resulting crop enterprises
yield high profit per hectare, and
ii. Farmers should also be encouraged to go into irrigation agriculture with support from governments and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs).
References
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
[6].
[7].
[8].
[9].
[10].
[11].
[12].
[13].
[14].
[15].
[16].
[17].
[18].
[19].
Adebayo, A. A. (1998). The Incidence of Dry Spells during the Growing Season in Yola. In: J. E. Ukpong (ed). Geography and the
Nigerian Environment. Nigerian Geographical Association. Pp. 258-264
Adebayo, A. A. (1999). Climate II. In: Adebayo, A. A. and Tukur, A. L. (eds.), Adamawa State in Maps. Paraclate Publishers, Yola.
Pp. 23-26
Adebayo, A. A. (2010). Climate: Resource and Resistance to Agriculture. Eight Inaugural Lecture of Federal University of
Technology, Yola. May, 9th
Adebayo, A. A., Onu, J. I., Adebayo, E. F. and Anyanwu, S. O. (2012). Farmers Awareness, Vulnerability and Adaptation to
Climate Change in Adamawa State, Nigeria. British J. of Arts and Social Sc.. 9(2):104- 115
Anuforom, A. C. (2010). Demonstration and Assessment of Climate Change in Nigeria and Development of Adaptation Strategies
in the key Socio-economic sectors: Meteorological Approach. A Paper presented at the National Stakeholders Workshop on
Developing National Adaptation Strategies and Plan of Action for Nigeria, held on 22nd, March. NIMET
Audu, E. B. (2013). Gas Flaring: A Catalyst to Global Warming in Nigeria. Intl. J. of Sc. and Techn. 3(1):6-10
Benhin, J. K. A. (2006). Climate Change and South African Agriculture: Impacts and Adaptations. CEEPA Discussion Paper No.
21 CEEPA, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
BNRCC (2008). Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate change. Backgrounder. www.nigeriaclimatechange.org
Easterling, W. E., Crosson, P. R., Rosenberg, M. S., Katz, L. A. & Lemon, K. M. (1993). Agricultural Impacts of and Responses
to Climate Change in the Missouro-lowa Nebraska Region. Climate Change 24 (1-2):23-62
Eileen, C. B. (2009). Impact of Climate Change and Local Adaptation Strategies of Various Socio-economic groups in Isabela,
Northern Philippines. Cilmate Issues Nov, 22 Session 2 RN15.
Idrisa, Y. L., Ogunbameru, B. O., Ibrahim, A. A. & Bawa, D. B. (2012). Analysis of Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change
among Farmers in the Sehel Savannah Agro-ecological zone of Borno State, Nigeria. British J. of Env. and Climate Change.
2(2):216-226
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change, 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Exit
Epa Disclaimer Contribution of working group II for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Maddison, D. (2006). The Perception of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 10. Centre for
Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria.
Mano, R. & Nhemachena, C. (2006). Assessment of the Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Zimbabwe: A
Ricardian Approach. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 11. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of
Pretoria, South Africa.
Mendelsohn, R., Dinar, A. & Arne, D. (2000). Climate Impact on African Agriculture. Climate change, (45), 583-600.
[23] Microsoft Student (2009). Microsoft Student Encarta Premium World Atlas Retrieved 30 th Dec. 2010
NPC (2006). Nigerian Population Commission, Abuja. Population of Nigeria by State and Sex, 1991 and 2006
Odjugo, P. A. O. (2010). Regional Evidence of Climate Change in Nigeria. Journal of Geog. and Regional Planning 3(6):142-150
Oyerinde, O. V. & Osanyande, O. V. (2010). Farmers Adaptation Strategies and Perception to Climate Change; A Case Study of
Communities Around Idare Forest Resources, Ondo state, Nigeria. In: Climate Change and Forest Resources Management: the way
www.iosrjournals.org
65 | Page
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change among Crop Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
[20].
[21].
[22].
[23].
[24].
[25].
[26].
forward. Proceeding of the 2nd Biennial National Conference of the Forest and Forest Product Society, Federal University of
Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Pp. 233-237
Ozor, N. & Cynthia, N. (2010). Difficulties in Adapting to Climate Change by Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. J. of Agric.
Extension.14(2): 106-122
Paavola J. (2006). “Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania”, Centre for
Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), University of East Anglia, UK Working Paper Pp. 8-12
Sajo, A. A. & Kadams, A. M. (1999). Food and Cash Crops. In; Adebayo, A. A. and A. L. Tukur (eds.). Adamawa State in Maps.
Paraclete publishers, Yola. Pp. 37-40
Sawa, B. A. & Adebayo, A. A. (2010). Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Onset, Cessation of Length of Rainy season in the
Sudano-Sahelian Region of Northern Nigeria. Paper presented at the NURS/NAHS Conference, 2010 held at University of Lagos.
Seo, N. & Mendelshn, R. (2006). Climate Change Impacts on Animal Husbandry in Africa: A Ricardian Analysis. CEEPA
Discussion Paper No. 9. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Smith, B. & Skinner, M. (2002). Adaptation Options in Agriculture to Climate Change: A Topology. Mitigation and Adaptation
Strategies for Global Change. 7: 85-114
WEP (2011). Assessment of Gender Knowledge and Awareness, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies to the Impacts of Climate
Change in Northern Nigeria. A Research conducted by Women Environmental Programme (WEP) with the support from CIDA and
BNRCC
www.iosrjournals.org
66 | Page