Global “Crises” Water and the Global Energy Crisis Historical and projected energy demand and oil prices show steadily rising demand and rapidly rising prices (Figure 1.8) Water and the Global Food Crisis Wheat and rice prices have risen sharply in recent years (Figure 1.9) Water and Climate Change GDP growth tracks rainfall variability in Ethiopia (1983-2000) and Tanzania (1989-99) (Figure 5.2) Water and the Financial Crisis “Budgetary spending on infrastructure is often cut during periods of financial tightening, although for governments that can afford it, investing in infrastructure can help counter an economic slowdown. “ WWDR3 p.17 Water Shortages: A Driver of Conflicts? “Ten years ago – even five years ago – few people paid much attention to the arid regions of western Sudan. Not many noticed when fighting broke out between farmers and herders, after the rains failed and water became scarce.” “We can change the names in this sad story. Somalia. Chad. Israel. The occupied Palestinian territories. Nigeria. Sri Lanka. Haiti. Colombia. Kazakhstan. All are places where shortages of water contribute to poverty.” Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, 2008 Increasing Demands = Increasing Competition “Competition for water exists at all levels and is forecast to increase with demands for water in almost all countries. In 2030, 47% of world population will be living in areas of high water stress.” WWDR3, Chapter 9 Water to sustain fragile ecosystems Water stress levels of major river basins (Map 6.3) Pressures on the resource: Fundamental needs and rising living standards Pressures on the resource: Fundamental needs and rising living standards Average national water footprint per capita, 1997-2001 (Map 7.3) Pressures on the resource: External drivers • Demographic • Economic Globalization, rising cost of food and energy, trade and “virtual water” • Social Lifestyles and consumption patterns, poverty, education, culture and values, • Technological Innovation and dissemination Environmental R&D, renewable energy, information and communications technology, biotechnology and GMO’s, bioenergy, nanotechnology • Policies laws and finance Finance: The missing link • Climate change Mitigation deals with carbon, adaptation with water Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats (Figure 5.1) Climate impacts are greatest in poor countries The costs of disasters as a share of GDP are much higher in poor countries than rich countries (Figure 1.2) Lack of information and data at a time when we need it more than ever to deal with increasing complexity Distribution of Global Runoff Data Centre streamflow gauges (Figure 13.1) The world is on track to meet the MDG target for drinking water; sub-Saharan Africa is not. The world is not on track to reach MDG sanitation target Investing in water Water investment requires a holistic approach – links between pricing, financing and stakeholders (Figure 1.4) Water for Sustainable Development Sustainable development as the framework for water management US government investments in water infrastructure during 1930-96 yielded $6 in damages averted for each $1 invested (Figure 1.3) Opening the “water box” Decision-making affecting water (Figure 1.1) Inside the “water box” • Water governance reform: strengthening policy, planning and institutions • Consulting with stakeholders and avoiding corruption: accountability in planning, implementation and management • Capacity development for more effective action • Developing appropriate solutions through innovation and research • Data and information needs • Financing Example from inside the water box: Uganda Addressing water supply and sanitation challenges in Uganda (Box 14.23) Outside the “water box” • Promoting win-win scenarios by creating space for change • Clearing pathways towards win-win situations: avoiding negative impacts • Promoting win-win scenarios through cooperation and knowledge • Sustaining change: changing habits through awareness • Ensuring sustainable financing Turkey’s South-eastern Anatolia Project (GAP) • Boost national hydroelectrical output by 70% • Increase irrigated land by over 25% • Generate 27,470 gigawatt hours of electricity Total cost: $32 billion (of which $17 billion has been invested. Integrating multiple sectors in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey (Box 15.23) Zambia: Linking water to development “Recognizing the importance of water for development, the government integrated the water sector reforms, including the new integrated water resources management plan, and the National Development Plan. Linking these was seen as fundamental to poverty reduction and achieving all the Millennium Development Goals.” Zambia’s experiences linking integrated water resources management with national development plans (Box 15.25) Challenges “The challenges are great, but the unsustainable management and inequitable access to water resources cannot continue – because the risks of inaction are even greater. Leaders inside and outside the water domain have critical, complementary roles.” Messages Water is essential to sustainable development. Leaders in government, the private sector and civil society must learn to recognize water’s role in obtaining their objectives. Messages "Aggressive government spending worldwide on infrastructure and other public projects is likely to be more effective than broad tax cuts in supporting global economic growth." Justin Lin, Chief Economist, World Bank. Business Times, Singapore. November 13, 2008. Messages The donor community can incorporate water into the broader frameworks of development aid and focus assistance on areas where it is needed most. Messages The chief executives of the UN agencies, following the example of their joint discussions of and collective responses to climate change, can convene to examine the role of water, water systems and water management in development and environmental services, providing direction to agencies and advice to member countries. Messages Inaction is not an option It can be done. Others have done it. Leaders in the water domain and decisionmakers outside it must act together now.