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Dr Mahfuzul Haque
Points for Discussion
 Geographical Reality of Bangladesh
 Vulnerability of Bangladesh to CC
 4th IPCC Report on Bangladesh
 Adaptation
 NAPA 2005
 BCCSAP 2009
Geographical reality
 The geographic location and geo-morphological
conditions of Bangladesh have made the country one
of the most vulnerable ones to climate change,
particularly to Sea Level rise (SLR)
 Bangladesh is situated at the interface of two different
environments, with the Bay of Bengal to the south and
the Himalayas to the north
 This peculiar geography of Bangladesh causes not only
life-giving monsoons but also catastrophic ravages of
natural disasters, to which now added are climate
change induced disaster including SLR
Geographical reality
 The country has a very low and flat topography, except
the northeast and southeast regions. About 10% of the
country is hardly 1 meter above the mean sea level
(MSL), and one-third is under tidal excursions
 Bangladesh has a humid, warm, tropical climate. Its
climate is influenced primarily by monsoon and postmonsoon circulations.
 Because of the very geographical situation of the
country, a series of natural disaster; like, floods,
cyclones, tornadoes, tidal bore, drought,
desertification, river erosion regularly visit the country
Vulnerability of Bangladesh
 A climate hazards calendar shows that
 Floods occur from May-October with severe flooding
during July-August period
Flash flood in April-June with severity in May
Drought from April to July with severity in May-June;
River bank erosion during June-October with severity
in July-September period
Cyclones and tornadoes visit us in April-May and
August-November period; and
Cold wave in January
Vulnerability of Bangladesh
 Bangladesh is already facing the adverse impacts of global
warming and climate change. The following impacts are
being observed:
Summers are becoming hotter
Monsoon irregular
Untimely rainfall
Heavy rainfall causing water logging and landslides
Very little rainfall in dry period
Increased river flow and inundation during monsoon
Increased frequency, intensity and recurrence of floods
Vulnerability of Bangladesh
Crop damage due to flash floods and monsoon floods
Crop failure due to drought
Prolonged cold spell
Salinity intrusion along the coast causing scarcity of
potable water
Coastal erosion
Riverbank erosion
Deaths due to extreme heat and extreme cold
Increased mortality, morbidity
Prevalence and outbreak of dengue, malaria, cholera and
Fourth IPCC Report 2007
 According to Fourth Assessment Report of Inter-
Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007
the following changes have been observed in climate
trends, variability and extreme events in Bangladesh:
 Average temperature has registered an increasing
trend of about 1 degree C in May and 0.5 degree C in
November during the 14 year-period from 1985 to 1998
 The annual mean rainfall exhibits increasing trends
 Serious and recurring floods have taken place during
2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007
Fourth IPCC Report 2007
 Cyclones originating from the Bay of Bengal have been
noted to decrease since 1970 but the intensity has
 Water shortages has been attributed to rapid
urbanization and industrialization, population growth
and inefficient water use, which are aggravated by
changing climate
 Salt water from the Bay of Bengal is reported to have
penetrated 100 km or more inland along tributary
channels during the dry season
Fourth IPCC Report 2007
 The precipitation decline and droughts has resulted in the
drying up of wetlands and severe degradation of
 The IPCC Report said that the production of rice and
wheat might drop in Bangladesh by 8 percent and 32
percent respectively by the year 2050
 Bangladesh is especially susceptible to increasing salinity of
groundwater as well as surface water resources, especially
along the coast. Even under the most conservative
estimate, the sea level will be about 40 cm higher than
today by the end of 21st century
Fourth IPCC Report 2007
 Climate change impacts are already adding significant
stress to our physical and environmental resources.
Impacts of observed changes are felt most in the
following sectors:
 Water resources
 Coastal resources
 Agriculture
 Health
 Livelihoods
 Food security
 Habitat/Settlement security
Global Climate Risk Index 2010
 Global Climate Risk Index 2010 says, an average of
8,241 people died each year in 244 cases of extreme
weather events in Bangladesh with damages
amounting to US$ 2 billion a year and a GDP loss of
1.81 percent during 1990-2008 period.
 Climate change induced disasters affecting lives and
livelihoods of at least 20 million people, while 200,000
people becoming homeless every year in Bangladesh
Mitigation Measures
 Are we ready to go for some mitigation and adaptation
measures for stabilizing GHGs?
 Mitigation measures are:
 Promotion of renewable energy (solar, hydro, biogas,
wind, wave etc)
 Conversion of automobiles to CNG
 Use of coal for brick kilns: improved model for kilns
 Increased efficiency of fossil fuel burning
 Introduction of Environmental Management System
(EMS) for domestic and industrial energy use
Way Out?
 Adaptation measures are:
 Agriculture : saline tolerant variety of crops; floating
gardens; rain water harvest; crop diversification; canal
 Habitat : Flood-proof homes; flood-proof drinking
water and sanitation; cyclone shelters
 Promote 3 Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle)
Adaptation for Flood
and Riverbank Erosion
 Cultivation in Sandbars: in the Charlands, cultivation of
watermelon, pumpkin and vegetables in polythene bags
Cage Culture: Fish cultivation in cages not affected by flooding
Cluster Village: Such cluster of villages are well adapted to CC in
the face of erosion in raised earth
Flood Proof Homes: They are well suited against wave action and
Floating Garden: Such floating gardens in water logged area are
capable to grow vegetables on water hyacinth. This is also known
as “ Baira”
Early transferable Infrastructure
Flood Proof School can be used as shelter for cattle heads on
raised earth
Livestock Shelter on School Ground (Killa)
Adaptation for Drought
 Cultivation of rice with minor irrigation: rice grown in
drought-prone areas
Digging of small ponds for water reservoir and cattle heads
Digging of mini pond in a crop land
Less water consuming fruits
Mango Orchard
Homestead Garden
Crop Rotation
Crop Diversification
Dry Seed Bed for Transplanted Aman
Maize Cultivation
Improved Stove
Adaptation for Flash Flood in Haor areas
Early variety of rice in flash flood prone areas
Submergible dyke to protect crops from flash flood
Flash flood proof rural market
Crop diversification
Early Maturing Rice variety
Village Mound Protection
Karach Swamp (Pongamia pinnata) Forest
Duck farming in Haor
Protection of fish farm
Canal re-excavation
Adaptation for Coastal Areas
 Duck farming
 School cum cyclone shelter centre
 Embankment along the Coastline
 Change in boat design
 Afforestation to protect the Chars and river bank
Adaptation for Agriculture
Saline tolerant variety of crops
Pure drinking water in saline area
Floating Garden- Baira
Ring based hanging garden
Flood proof drinking water and sanitation
Crop storage
Rainwater harvesting
Mele chash Red Cultivation
Cyclone Resistant Housing
Reinforced fishing boats
Abating Erosion from flash flood
Early warning
NAPA 2009
 National Adaptation
Plan of Action 2005
(updated in August
 Related to adaptation
measures to climate
 Country-wide
consultation was held
NAPA Measures
 NAPA undertook some short-term and medium-term
projects on Adaptation. How to mainstream
adaptation to climate change into various sectoral
policies of the government. Other specific measures
are as follows:
 Adaptation to coastal crop agriculture
 Adaptation to coastal fisheries
 Adaptation to Haor crops victims of flash floods in NE
 Adaptation to floods
 Adaptation to natural hazards
 Bangladesh Climate
Change Strategy and
Action Plan 2009
 A pro-poor climate
change management
strategy, which
prioritizes adaptation
and disaster risk
reduction, low carbon
development, mitigation
and technology transfer
BCCSAP built on following six pillars:
1. Food Security, social protection and health to protect
people from CC impacts
2. Comprehensive disaster management to strengthen
3. Infrastructure Development accommodating CC
4. Research and Knowledge development on CC
5. Mitigation and Low Carbon Development
6. Capacity Building and Institutional Development
Further Readings
 Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government
of Bangladesh and UNDP, National Adaptation
Programme of Action (NAPA), August 2009.
 Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government
of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Climate Change
Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), 2009.
 Department of Environment, Climate Change and
Bangladesh, 2009.
Probable Questions
 What are the likely adverse impacts of climate change
on the Agriculture sector, discuss.
 Discuss vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change
 What are the adaptation measures related to climate
change in coastal areas of Bangladesh?
Thank you