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Introduction to the EU
Gary Marks
Five Perspectives on the EU
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Peace
Democracy
Protest
Efficiency
Survival
PERSPECTIVE ONE
Peace

World War I: 20 million dead

World War II: 70 million dead
What to do about nationalism: the most
deadly force in human history
A “United States of Europe”
. . .What is this sovereign remedy? It
is to recreate the European Family or
as much of it as we can and provide it
with a structure under which it can
dwell in peace, in safety and freedom.
We must build a kind of United
States of Europe.
Therefore I say to you:
“Let Europe Arise!”
Zurich, 19 Sept 1946
How can war be averted?
“ . . . only one solution: we must
bind ourselves inextricably to
Germany. . .” Jean Monnet
The Schuman Declaration
Europe will not be made all at once, or
according to a single plan. It will be built
through concrete achievements . . .
The French government proposes that
Franco-German production of coal and steel
as a whole be placed under a common High
Authority. . .as a first step in the federation of
Europe. Any war between France and
Germany becomes not merely unthinkable,
but materially impossible. ….
Robert Schuman, 9 May 1950
Robert Schuman
JJean Monnet
Three Landmarks



The European Coal and Steel Community
(1951): Succeeded!
European Defence Community (1954):
Failed!
The European Economic Community
(1957): Succeeded!
PERSPECTIVE TWO
Democracy
It’s no secret
We actually know how to consolidate
democracy
Copenhagen criteria
“Membership requires that the candidate country
has achieved stability of institutions
guaranteeing . . .”
1) the rule of law, human rights and respect for,
and protection of minorities
2) democracy
3) the existence of a functioning market economy
PERSPECTIVE THREE
Protest
no! No! NO!
Elites and public on Europe
Sources: a)
elites, Intune (Fall
2007)
b) public opinion:
Eurobarometer
68 (Fall 2007)
REFERENDA ON EUROPE
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
EU Referenda
"NO" votes
1971- 1981- 1991- 200180
90
00
07
IDENTITY
50
40
national only
30
national,
european
european,
national
european only
20
10
0
Public Opinion
Source: Commission (2002 survey),
Public Opinion (Eurobarometer 2001)
Criticism on
the radical
right
http://europa.sp.nl/
campagne2004/waakhond.shtml
Criticism
on the
radical
left
First anti-EU protests in
Bulgaria (January 2007)
Issue: sales tax on
home-made liquor
Graffiti:
We don’t want Europe
We don’t want money
We want the liquor at the old
prices.
1=exclusive national identity 2= mix of national and european identity
Eurobarometer 1992-1998
PERSPECTIVE FOUR
Efficiency
n“Multilevel governance must be a priority.”
José Manuel Barroso, President of the European
Commission, 2009.
“Develop as quickly as possible practical measures
. . . with a view to strengthening multilevel
governance.”
October 2008 resolution of the European Parliament
Principles of Multilevel Government
Centralize where necessary
a) encompass relevant externalities
b) exploit economies of scale
Decentralize where possible
a) responsive government
b) preferences vary
Match the scale of government to the scale
of problem:





Local: garbage pickup
Regional: urban sprawl
National: land usage; transport network
Continental: Rhine pollution
Global: climate change
1950: sovereign national states
National legal systems, armies, taxation,
parliaments, welfare health, education
Inside countries: legitimate authority, the rule of
law, democracy, liberty, equality
Outside countries: no legitimate authority, no
effective legal or normative order, anarchy,
power politics, war
Regionalization in Europe
BRITAIN
Scottish, Welsh parliaments,
1997
FRANCE
Elected regional
governments,1982
Federal constitution, 1949
GERMANY
ITALY
Elected regional governments,
1976. Strengthened, 1996.
SPAIN
Autonomous regions, 1978.
Strengthened, 1993; 1998.
PERSPECTIVE FIVE
SURVIVAL
Why the EU is the world’s most
important experiment
A growing number of public bads are
transnational
TRANSPORT ANDand
COMMUNICATIONS
Falling FALLING
costCOST
of OF
transport
communications
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1920
1930
1940
Ocean freight
1950
1969
Air
Transatlantic phone
1970
Satellite
1980
1990
•
•
•
•
•
•
climate change
nuclear proliferation
financial regulation
failing states
biodiversity loss
ocean exhaustion
• deforestation
• overfishing
• nuclear waste
disposal
• epidemics
• refugees
Combatting these problems involves
winners and losers
national sovereignty is seriously suboptimal
3.9%
85.0%
6.6%
93.3%
11.1%
the European Union is the world’s most
important experiment in creating
authoritative, general purpose, supranational
government
task specific
general purpose
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