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INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
JURMALA, MAY 11-14, 2005, LATVIA
A GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE LOWER
DANUBE-BLACK SEA BASIN. CASE-STUDIES
ROMANIAN ACADEMY
INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY
MIHAELA SERBAN
CONTENT
• Environmental trends of the Romanian Danube-Black Sea
Basin
• Main environmental threats to sustainable development in
Romania
• Sustainable development and global environmental change
• Sustainable development in Romania - Legislative
framework
• Case studies
Danube-Black Sea space
RO
GENERAL MAP OF ROMANIA
NATURAL HAZARDS
Eastern Carpathians – Seismic
region Vrancea
CUCULEŞTI MUDFLOW – BUZĂU SUBCARPATHIANS
2003
Technological hazards in the lower Danube-Black Sea Basin
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36. Hazarde tehnologice
Technological hazards
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Ti s
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Exploatãri miniere
Mining exploitations
Centrale atomo-electrice
Nuclear-electric power plants
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Other centres with nuclear activities
7
[%
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25 o
23 o
Potenþial de poluare cu petrol º i apã sãratã
Oil and brine pollution potential
Zimnicea
#
25 o
27 o
29
o
44 o
AGRICULTURE
Land Fund Law (No. 18/1991) – a
fundamental change of property
over the land
-The transition from state and
collective property to private
ownership
-The land was divided among a
large number of owners (4.7
millions), each acquiring under 2
hectares
1990
-the allocated piece of land is often
fragmented into several parcels,
over 47 million parcels emerged
after the implementation of the Law
2002
The main environmental issues in the Danube – Black Sea System,
Romania
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
extreme events (landslides, floods, storms) due to climate change;
loss of biodiversity;
desertification tendencies;
deforestation;
land degradation;
high nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) loads;
competition for available water;
overexploitation of surface and groundwater;
changes in river flow patterns, including transport of sediment;
contamination with hazardous substances;
accidental pollution;
degradation and loss of wetlands;
NATECH hazards (natural triggering technological hazards)
CLIMATE CHANGE
Romania – annual mean temperature evolution trends during the XX-th century
Sararu, 2003
•A slight increasing trend in the annual mean temperatures and a decrease in precipitations
The flow water (daily mean discharge)
and the precipitation variations at
Tinoasa (2002)
•A tendency of precipitation concentration
over short time intervals and an increase
of their torrential character
• rapid snowmelting
•flush flood events in small catchments
Miţă, Mătreaţă, 2004
ROMANIA: JULY - AUGUST 2002
FLOODS
IN THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE CONTEXT
Counties affected by floods in April 2005
Consequences:
-7 casualties;
- 5000 evacuated
people;
-4000 affected
houses;
-100 000 ha
agricultural land;
-500 bridges and
small bridges;
-17 km national roads
and 52 km county
roads
Source: Timis Online
Source: Timis Online
Source: Timis Online
DROUGHT AND FLOOD EVENTS
• desertification tendencies in the
Southern Romania;
• increased frequency of springtime
flooding and induced technological
accidents;
• tornado events;
Source: Ministry of Waters and Environmental Protection, 2002
The lowest Danube level in the last 160 years
Zimnicea, 30 august 2003
Foto: Jeni Drăgoi
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA –
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
• Sustainable Development Strategy, 1999
• Twinning Project between Italy and
Romania on “Environment Statistics
Survey”, National Institute of Statistics,
2002-2004
– A study on sustainable development indicators
• Sustainable Development Strategy of
Romania “Orizont 2025” (to be elaborated)
List of indicators, according to thematic areas and DPSIR model
Level I:
Thematic
areas
Climate
change and
energy
Specific
objectives
Improving the
efficiency of thermoelectrical
equipments;
Indicators
DPSIR
1.GHG emissions;
S
2. Total annual CO2
emissions/loc;
S
3. Total annual energy
consumption.
P
Targets
Activities
Reduction GHG
emissions with 8%
during 2008 – 2012.
S
-Increasing forest area
from 27% to 35% until
2040
1.Total forest area:
Nature and
biodiversity
Protection of
biodiversity;
desertification
prevention and
reduction;
-Forest area dynamics;
-Aforestation dynamics.
- Increasing the
protected surface from
2,56% (1990) to 10%
(2015)
2. Total protected areas
R
National Commission for Climate
Change, implementing the issues
specified by UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change
Romania has ratified the Kyoto
Protocol in 2001.
For diversity protection, Romania
has ratified the Convention of
Biological Diverity in 1992. In
1992 it was declared the Danube
Delta Biosphere Reserve. For
increasing forested area, the
Development Strategy for
Forests elaborated by MAPAM,
approved by Romanian
Government has 2 programmes
focused on aforestation.
National Institute of Statistics, 2004
CASE STUDIES
BAIA MARE - TECHNOLOGICAL ACCIDENT AND
TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTION
JANUARY AND MARCH 2000
• Two tailings dam failures in Maramures county
resulted in the release of 200 000 m³ of contaminated
water and 40 000 tonnes of tailings into tributaries of the
Tisa River, a major tributary of the Danube.
• Following these accidents, Institute of Geography in
collaboration with the University of Wales, UK initiated
a research programme in northwest Romania to establish
metal levels in rivers affected by the present and historic
mining activities.
2000-2005
> 1100 SAMPLES,
350 SITES
2000
River systems
categories:
1971
• with historical
mining activity,
presently inactive;
•with historical and
present mining
activity;
• with opportunities
for the opening of
new exploitations
• with tailings dam
accidents
“Aurul” tailings pond
“Bozânta 1” tailings pond
(inactive)
2001
33 sites
828 km
Zn concentrations in the River Sasar
2000
2001
2002
2003
target value
imperative value
Zn
Bioavailable < target
Bioavailable > target
Bioavailable > intervention
Use of private supply groundwater in Maramureş
Samples taken from 96 households
Zn concentrations in domestic wells vs. distance from river channel in the Someş
catchment
Concentration (ug/l)
10000
1000
100
10
0
500
1000
1500
Distance from channel (m)
2000
2500
Zn concentrations in domestic wells vs distance from contaminant point source in the
Someş catchment
10000
Concentration (ug/l)
1000
100
10
1
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
Distance from mining point-source (m)
10000
12000
14000
Certej river basin:
a mining affected basin
•
•
nactive tailings dam
•
1971 accident site
•
active tailings dam
•
•
78 km2 catchment containing
the 40.05 km2 CertejCoranda mining concession.
Mining history dating back to
the Roman period.
Current open-cast
exploitation at Coranda with
ore processed in Certeju de
Sus.
Two tailings ponds in the
catchment: Miresului
(inactive) and Mialu (active).
Historical tailings dam
failure in 1971.
70 samples taken from 30
sample sites.
River Certej: Cd in surface waters and river channel sediments
1000
100
10
Valea Mialu
1
0.1
0
5
10
15
20
Channel distance (km)
100
Concentration (mg kg -1)
Concentration (g l-1)
10000
Valea Mialu
10
1
0.1
0
5
10
15
Channel distance (km)
20
Aries river: 51 sample sections (2002 – 2003)
Rosia river, a mining
affected tributary
Rosia Poieni quarry
Aries river: Cu concentration in surface water (2002-2003)
Aries river: Cu concentration in channel sediments (2002-2003)
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