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Climate Change
Adaptation in Africa:
the Role of the
AfricAn Development BAnk”
Daniele Ponzi
Manager
Sustainable Development Division
7th Annual Donors’ Meeting
on Agriculture and Rural Development in West and Central Africa
30-31 October 2007, TUNIS – Tunisia
AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
Contents
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Key impacts and threats in Africa
The Response: Climate Adaptation
Adaptation: The Bank Approach
Adaptation: Bank Policy
Adaptation: Capacity Building (Climate
information)
Adaptation: Project Interventions
Conclusions
Projected Impacts of Climate
Change
Source: Stern Review
1. Climate Change effects and
impacts
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More severe droughts
Desertification
Changing eco systems
Reduced crop yields
Floodings and storms
Increased vector diseases
Rising sea level
Africa: Key Impacts
• Africa is the least responsible but hardest hit continent
• Water: By 2020, 75-250 million people will face
increased water stress.
• This will adversely affect livelihoods and exacerbate waterrelated problems. North Africa: acute water scarcity problems.
• Agriculture: The area suitable for agriculture, length of
growing season, and yield potential is expected to
decrease, particularly in semi-arid and arid areas.
• Food security will be compromised, malnutrition will increase.
Africa: Key Impacts (contd.)
• Fisheries: Decreasing fisheries in large lakes due to rising water
temperatures will negatively affect local food supply.
• Health: Vector borne diseases will shift.
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Increases in malaria are expected in Southern Africa and the East African
highlands. Flood- and drought-related illnesses will increase. (Cholera, malaria,
rift valley fever, etc)
• Sea Level Rise:
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Mangroves and coral reefs will be further degraded, with additional
consequences for fisheries and tourism.
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People at risk from coastal flooding (from 1 mill in 1990 to 70 mill. in 2080)
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Cost of adaptation to sea level rise in coastal areas could be 5-10% of GDP.
Africa’s Vulnerability
• Africa is particularly vulnerable to impacts of
climate variability and climate change because of
its multiple stresses and low adaptive capacity
• Climate change will threaten all aspects of the
development agenda:
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Income poverty and hunger (the poorest hardest hit)
Direct and indirect health effects (malaria, Tsetse fly, etc)
Displacement, migration and conflict
Impacts already here (Natural resources & Infrastructure)
• Equity Dimension: Developed countries are
responsible for the problem and will have to
provide assistance (financial, technical, etc.)
The Response: Adaptation
• Adaptation is essential to manage climate change
impacts and maximize development outcomes.
• Development is key to adaptation: it enhances resilience
(reducing vulnerabilities) and increases capacity.
• Adaptation requires economy-wide planning, regional cooperation as well as local engagement
– Leadership and co-ordination is essential: key role for Heads of
Government, Finance and Economic Ministries, active
engagement of local communities and stakeholders
The Response: Adaptation
Examples:
• Weather & Climate Forecasting (farmers’ decisions)
• Historical & Real Time climate observations (EWS)
– Improved disaster management and response
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More resilient crop varieties (drought resilient)
Technologies for water conservation and irrigation
New methods to combat land degradation
Prevention and treatment of malaria and other
water- and vector- borne diseases
Adaptation: Bank Approach
• The Bank has started in 2006 a climate adaptation and climate
risk management program with interventions at policy, capacity
and project level.
• The Bank adopts an integrated Climate Risk Management approach
– i.e. integrating adaptation and disaster risk management (promoting
climate change adaptation by addressing first current climate variability
risks (reducing costs of natural disasters, urgency & immediate benefits,
avoiding wrong adaptation)
– i.e. climate change as an economic and social risk rather than a long
term environmental problem
• This will generate synergies and local benefits, both directly and
indirectly, towards sustainable development and poverty reduction.
Bank Approach: CRM Policy
1.
CRM Policy :
• AfDB is currently working on the preparation of its new
Policy on climate risk management and adaptation. The
policy has 2 pillars:
• A) Due diligence in Bank operations: It will guide AfDB’s
future work to “climate proof” its portfolio of operations
(agriculture, natural resources, human development and
infrastructure investments, among others) and
• B) Targeted Assistance to RMCs: It will support African
countries’ early efforts to improve their resilience to
current climate variability and future climate change
impacts;
Bank Approach: Capacity Building
2. Capacity building (Climate Information):
• AfDB is active in supporting capacity building for
adaptation at Bank and country level
• Supporting development of tools and approaches for
“climate proofing” and climate resilience country strategy
and project development (climate screening tools,
climate assessments, and country and sector climate
vulnerability profiles).
• Tools, methods and lessons (relating to plans/policies,
institutions, investments) will also result from various
adaptation and SLM projects now under preparation;
Bank Approach: Capacity Building
(cont.d)
Climate Information:
• Bank has activities on climate information for
development, disaster risk reduction and improved
natural resources management with various African
institutions and bilateral agencies.
• AfDB is a partner, together with the African Union and
UN ECA, of the Joint-Secretariat for Clim-Dev Africa
(Climate for Development in Africa program) and is
already contributing, both financially and technically, to a
number of activities under this program.
Bank Approach: Projects
3.
Project interventions:
AfDB has recently obtained approval by the GEF Secretariat of a
Project Preparation Grant (PPG) for a climate adaptation proposal in
Malawi.
• The project (Malawi Climate Adaptation for Rural Livelihoods and
Agriculture – CARLA-next slide) is linked to an ADB agriculture and
water irrigation project in July 2006 and is one of the first projects to
be approved by GEF under the Least Developed Countries Fund
(LDCF) adaptation window.
• A number of additional GEF adaptation projects will be prepared in
2007-2008, including interventions in Mauritania, Burundi and
Madagascar, in partnership respectively with UNEP, UNDP and the
World Bank.
• Adaptation dimensions are also addressed through Bank SLM
projects under the TERRAFRICA SIP program (Zambia & Gambia)
• All these projects will have strong linkages with sustainable land and
water management;
Adaptation projects: CARLA
(Climate Adaptation for Rural Livelihoods and Agriculture-Malawi)
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CARLA is linked and will “climate proof” an ADB agriculture and irrigation
project approved last year.
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CARLA will "improve resilience to current climate variability and future
climate change by developing and implementing cost-effective adaptation
strategies, policies and measures that will improve agricultural production
and rural livelihoods".
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2 adaptation components (hard & soft) will support:
– (i) Investments aimed at improving agricultural, land management and
natural systems as well as rural livelihoods through targeted on the
ground adaptation interventions, fostering adaptation of individuals,
communities and the private sector; and
– (ii) and Climate risk management, including plans, policies,
legislation/regulations, and resource allocation; institutional
coordination; generation and tailoring of knowledge on climate risk
management for specific user groups (particularly in the context of the
investment component); and awareness raising.
CONCLUSIONS
The Bank will need to :
• Step up adaptation mainstreaming in its operations, including
country strategies and interventions in infrastructure, agriculture and
human development. This will maximize development results.
• Start adaptation mainstreaming for high climate risk investment
operations, i.e. due diligence (pillar 1).
• Provide adaptation support to its RMCs (pillar 2) based on its own
and its partners’ growing adaptation experience and knowledge.
Given the magnitude of the challenge and the current insufficient scale
of resources, the Bank will further need to:
• Strategically leverage partnerships and find most effective ways to
mainstream adaptation with the limited resources available.
• Advocate, in the most appropriate ways, for new and additional
streams of funding to address the inequities associated with rising
climate risks
Thank you
[email protected]