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BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica
Climate Change Symbosium 26.11.2005
House of Sciences (Tieteiden talo), Kirkkokatu 6, Helsinki
Kari Mielikäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute
Finnish Forests and Climate Change
Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica homepage: http://www.societasfff.fi/
Pekka Nöjd
Pekka Nöjd /
Metsäntutkimuslaitos
Skogsforskningsinstitutet
Finnish Forest Research Institute
www.metla.fi
http://www.societasfff.fi/
Pekka Nöjd
Metsäntutkimuslaitos
Skogsforskningsinstitutet
Finnish Forest Research Institute
www.metla.fi
Climate change and Finnish Forests
Kari Mielikäinen 25.11.2005
METLA
Siberian larch, age 100 000 years +
Content of the Talk
1.
2.
3.
4.
History of Finnish forests (Ice Age … 1920)
Air pollution and forest growth (1980 … 2000)
Growth Trends in European Forests
Climate Change and Finnish Forests
Can we see it?
What are the impacts?
Uncertainties?
What should the scientists do?
The history of Finnish forests after the latest Ice Age
First pine and birch trees came to
Lapland 8000 years ago, Norway
spruce 3000 years ago
The climate was clearly warmer 5000
years ago
Pine was growing north of the present
tree line
DOMESTIC PROBLEM:
The Utilisation of Finnish forests 1500…
•
•
•
•
Slash and burn
Tar distillation
Dimension cuttings
Sustainable forest management 1920…
© Metla/Olli Heikinheimo
REGIONAL PROBLEM:
Impacts of air pollution on European forests
 Situation in the 1980´s
 Sulphur (SO2)  Acid rain
 Deposition of nitrogen (traffic and agriculture)
 Deposition of heavy metals

==> In spite of these facts (next two slides)
Total increment and drain of Finnish forests
100
80
Mio.m³
Increment
60
40
Drain
20
0
19231930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
© Metla/Erkki Oksanen
Increment and fellings in European forests
800
Gross annual increment
700
Net annual increment
mill. m 3/year
600
500
Annual fellings
400
300
200
100
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
In exploitable forests 1950-1990 (133 mill. ha in 1990), in forests available for wood supply 2000 (149 mill. ha in 2000)
Sources:
years 1950-1990: Kuusela, K. 1994. Forest Resources in Europe. European Forest Institute. Research Report 1.
year 2000: UN-ECE/FAO. 2000. Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand.
E U R O P E A N
F O R
E S T
5/24/2017
I N S T I T U T E
LAUCHING OF A PROJECT BY METLA AND UNI FREIBURG IN 1992
”GROWTH TRENDS IN EUROPEAN FORESTS”
 “HAS FOREST (TREE) GROWTH IN EUROPE
CHANGED IN A WAY, THAT CANNOT BE
EXPLAINED BY CHANGES IN STAND
STRUCTURE OR SILVICULTURE?”
 Here:
Growth trend = long-lasting deviation from
expected growth (Tree age and stand density
excluded)

==> 45 forest growth scientist from 12 countries
METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
•STUDY MATERIALS:
OLD DATA FROM:
1. LARGE-AREA INVENTORIES
2. LONG-TERM PLOTS OR EXPERIMENTS
3. UNTOUCHED OLD FORESTS (NATURE
RESERVES)
© Metla/Arvo Helkiö
Growth Trends in European Forests: Conclusions
(Spiecker, Mielikäinen, Köhl & Skovsgaard 1996)
Possible causes for increasing growth
trends in Central Europe
•
Land use history and forest management
• Natural disturbances
– fire, insects, drought, storms
– natural variation of the climate
• Human influence on the environment
– Nitrogen deposition  MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR
GLOBAL PROBLEM:
Climate change in Finland
• CAN WE ALREADY SEE IT?
• WHAT ARE THE IMPACTS ON FORESTS?
© Metla/Reino Saarnio
Annual ring index of Scots pine and July
temperature in Sodankylä, Lapland
150
Tree-ring index, Sodankylä
125
100
75
50
20
Temperature of July, Sodankylä
18
16
14
12
10
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
Mean temperature December-March in
Sodankylä, Lapland
Mean temperature April – May
in Sodankylä, Lapland
Annual ring index of Sodankylä in a
longer time-scale
180
Tree-ring index
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
Year
• What are the impacts on
forest(ry)?
The impact of increasing temperature on tree
growth in Finland
•
• Experimental data
(Heikinheimo 1920-2000)
• Modeling
(Kellomäki 1990´s)
– seed origins between
Germany and Finnish
Lapland
– CO2 + heating in
plastic tents +
modeling
– temperature rise of 4 °C
 +100 % in growth
– temperature rise of 4
°C +30-50 % in
growth
© Metla/Erkki Oksanen
Impacts on forest management
• Selection of tree species
– Norway spruce, broadleaved trees
• Harvesting technologies
– no frost –> problems with machines
• Wind damages
– changed stand structure (planted spruce)
inceasing risks
• After effects
– fungi, insect damages
Uncertainties in forecasts
• Too simple models
• Variation of North Atlantic
Oscillation (NAO)
• Heat pumps of the oceans
(Golf stream) may change
• Long-term ”unknown”
variation of tree growth
(Dendrochronology)
What should the scientists do?
• Meteorological
observations
• Analysis of annual rings
(yearly basis)
• Monitoring of tree growth
(daily basis) using girth
bands
• Modeling
CLIMATE CHANGE
CAN WE SEE IT?
IS IT COMING?
IMPACTS ON TREES?
NOT YET IN FINLAND
PROCESSES ARE KNOWN
GROWTH INCREASE
NEGATIVE IMPACTS
WHAT TO DO?
FIGHT AGAINST
THANK YOU!
Pekka Nöjd
Metsäntutkimuslaitos
Skogsforskningsinstitutet
Finnish Forest Research Institute
www.metla.fi
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