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The Chemistry of
Climate Change
Greenhouse Effect
300 nm
Greenhouse Gases
SpeciesAbsorption Region
Estimated Global Warming
H 2O
2.5, 3.5, 5-7 mm
~110 Wm-2
CO2
14-19 mm
~50 Wm-2
CH4
3-4, 7-8.5 mm
~1.7 Wm-2
O3
9-10 mm
~1.3 Wm-2
Global Warming Potential

GWP 

H
0
H
0
ai (t ) :
ai (t )Ci (t )dt
aC (t )CC (t )dt
Due to species i
Due to CO2
Radiative forcing
(net change in the flow of radiative
energy per unit mass)
Concentration of Greenhouse
Ci (t ) :
gas
Global Warming Potential
H
GWP 
ai  e t / i dt
0
H
aCO2  e
t /  CO2
0

dt
ai i
aCO2 CO2
1  e  H / i
 H /
1  e CO2
Climate Change Indicator
Integration Time Period
Maximum change in Temperature
~100 years
Rate of change in Temperature
~20-50 years
Maximum change in Sea Level
>100 years
Rate of change in Sea Level
>50 years
GAS
GWP
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
1
Methane (CH4)
21
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
310
HFC-23
11,700
HFC-32
2,800
HFC-125
1,300
HFC-134a
3,800
HFC-143a
140
HFC-152a
2,900
HFC-227ea
2,900
HFC-236fa
6,300
HFC-4310mee
1,300
CF4
6,500
C2F6
9,200
SF6
23,900
Global Warming
Potentials
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