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CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MAINSTREAMING Barry Dalal-Clayton Learning and Leadership Group: Uganda 24-25 July 2012 Outline of presentation Why do we need EM? What is EM and what does it achieve? Making choices about EM – entry points & tactics The drivers/constraints of EM RAPIDLY GROWING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY …… … is breaching ecological limits… Loss of biodiversity Deforestation Soil erosion Rapid population growth Climate change Pollution MAINSTREAMING ENVIRONMENT NEVER MORE URGENT Arctic sea ice, Sept ‘07 • 60% of ecosystems are degraded (MA 2005) • Cost = 11% of GDP UNEP, 2010) From article in “Nature”, 2009 • Inner Breaching planetary boundaries blue shading represents the proposed safe operating space for nine planetary systems. • Red wedges represent an estimate of the current position for each variable – 3 exceeded Environmental trends remain negative Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 GEO 4 2007 Human produced N Fisheries collapse – Atlantic Cod Changes in species abundance by region Pollutants – residence in atmosphere Soils with high water erosion risk Condition of planet? World is suffering from “Environmental Deficit Disorder” (taking a Gaia (organism health) perspective – James Lovelock) Foolish environmental devaluation & asset liquidation (taking an economic/business perspective) “The planet will strike back as a result of bad decisions by people” WHO ENVIRONMENT IS STILL AN EXTERNALITY IN DECISIONS ENVIRONMENT is Not certain Not predictable UK: Top national political concerns Not valued Not priced Not traded Not owned Not scrutinised Not on the political agenda Climate change concern The political economy of environment is weak • Envir. and dev‘t institutions separate – different worlds! • Finance dominates dev’t – $/day, 0.7% aid, budget support • But finance ‘missing’ from environment in national budgets (c. 1%) ? City budgets (10% Quezon) • Envir. is treated as technical – but its politics are toxic (Greenpeace) • Envir. language confuses – goods/bads? science/values? • Envir. stakeholders ‘push’ – don’t understand mainstream Environmentalists – not always listened to ‘Who are the bossiest people on earth?’ Politicians Religious leaders Right-wing newspapers Environmentalists I’M AN ENVIRONMENTALIST. THINK LIKE ME! Donors are also demanding EM, and are key drivers • Upstream policy/budget issues and not only projects • Thus donors focus on SEA, ‘country systems’ and climate change integration • Need to move beyond env ‘safeguards’ towards positive ENR use • But ‘mainstreaming’ can be a turn-off word: too many issues being ‘mainstreamed’ assumes the mainstream is on the right track ‘integration’ may be better (as in Spanish, French) Beware upsetting the fine balance Environmental Mainstreaming is critical for sustainable development and green economy Social Environment Economic Environment CHALLENGE Integrating environment into development policy, planning and investment never more urgent, eg Climate-proofing infrastructure and agriculture Making industry water-efficient and clean Tackling environmental deprivations of poor people ENVIRONMENTAL MAINSTREAMING – A definition “The informed inclusion of relevant environmental concerns into the decisions and institutions that drive national, sectoral, city and local development policy, rules, plans, investment and action” (IIED, 2009) EM: spectrum of outcomes Improved awareness of environment Improved information base on environment Improved participation and voice on environment Improved policy, law, plan, strategy on environment Improved capacity to address environment Improved budget and finance to tackle environment Improved environmental conditions In any country , who are the different actors best placed to promote and help mainstreaming? Choice of ‘entry point’ Where to build bridges between environment and development worlds? 1. Govt authorities, or non-govt (business, watchdogs)? 2. Env authorities, or development authorities? 3. Env as a sector, or cross-cut, or one issue e.g. climate? 4. Existing decision-making (national /city plans), or special (SD strategy)? 5. Plan, or upstream (economic policy / rights) or downstream (pilot projects)? 6. National level, or a district, or a sector? 7. Stop bad practice, or support existing good, or innovate? Choice of tactics for mainstreaming Language: 1. 2. Speak ‘economics’ (still the main language of policy discourse) not ‘environmentalese’ Speak ‘development’ (jobs and growth) not ‘no growth’ Work with politicians and offer solutions, not speaking at them Focus: on financial decisions (budget is key) 3. Attitude: potentials, not only negative safeguards 4. Present costs, benefits, risks of env integration ‘Glimpses’ of desirable outcomes, plus enabling conditions Authority: further strengthen our moral and scientific Involve poor groups; public opinion surveys; accountability Offer specific evidence/cases, not only generic DRIVERS of environmental mainstreaming Major drivers Increasing stakeholder awareness & demands National legislation & regulations Values of progressive organisations (eg big companies) Donor conditions Moderately important International commitments Major environmental events and disasters(eg floods) Company business plans & objectives Risk management Traditional cultural reasons Company/business regulations / requirements Others Personal values Visible ‘real’ issues Link between development/poverty reduction & environment Requirements of clients EU accession and approximation process Membership of international business groups (that embrace E M.) Desire to address rising poverty and inequality Need to protect ecosystems and stem environmental degradation MAIN ACTORS Environmental organisations As regulatory authorities, service delivery organisations, environmental NGOs, Civil society groups – representing people especially dependent on the environment Improve efforts to influence ‘the mainstream’ to integrate environment Lobbying, case-making, collaboration, providing information Assert broad vision of Environmental Mainstreaming Mainstream development organisations Central, sectoral & cityplanning and finance authorities Delivery organisations Corporations National + local levels Need to understand how environment affects development interests; + associated costs-benefits-risks + their distribution How to meet international / national environmental obligations Mainstreaming approaches Broad tactics (ways of raising issues and making a case/getting heard, eg campaigns, lobbying) Promoting/enabling institutional change (strategic level approaches); Specific (more micro) instruments, technical tools and analytical methods (eg for gathering information, planning and monitoring); Methods for consultation and engaging stakeholders; and also Range of more informal, voluntary and indigenous approaches Stuck? Confused? Looking for tools to help? CATEGORISING APPROACHES/TOOLS INFORMATION Economic & financial assessment CBA, green accounting DELIBERATIVE & ENGAGEMENT Participation & citizens’ action Impact assessment & strategic analysis EIA, SEA, SoE, Natural Step Spatial assessment LUP, poverty mapping PLA, citizens’ juries Political analysis & action Discourse-shaping, coalition-forming, manifestos, commissions Conflict management Dispute resolution, arbitration Monitoring & evaluation Indicators, audits, SD reporting Policy analysis Stakeholder, institutional, governance mapping PLANNING & ORGANISING Legal tools Public interest litigation, rights regime Visioning Scenarios Management planning & control QMS/EMS, ISO, risk assessment, threshold analysis TOP APPROACHES/TOOLS IDENTIFIED BY USERS IN COUNTRY SURVEYS Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Cost benefit analysis (CBA) ISO standards ********************************** Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) Monitoring (general) Indicators ********************************** Land use planning Environmental audits Environmental management system (EMS) Public participation (general) Geographic information system Green/natural resource accounting State of environment report Certification Life cycle analysis Eco-management & audit system (EMAS) Workshops & seminars Public hearing Public consultation Community meetings Community-based NR management Conflict management Multi-stakeholder consultation / processes Risk assessment Media (campaigns) Economic valuation Legal frameworks / guidelines Facilitation & enabling mechanisms Linking tools and the Policy/planning cycle – opportunities & leverage points Environmental mainstreaming in planning & policy-making? The two best options are: merged processes integrated processes Planning EM Linking EM tools/approaches Better PPP. Decisions & Investments Influence Green economy Information Deliberation & engagement = Dialogue Planning & organising Key constraints to environmental mainstreaming Lack of political will Lack of understanding & awareness (of environmental issues) Lack of data / information Lack of skills **************************************** Lack of human resources Lack of funding Lack of awareness of available tools ******************************************************** Over-complicated/overlapping environmental legislation Lack of (access to) methodologies/tools - that work Corruption Fragmentation of environmental responsibilities www.Environmental-Mainstreaming.org Environment Inside Environment Inside - - builds on: For your attention !