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WARMF Watershed Model
Carl W. Chen and Joel W. Herr
Systech Engineering, Inc.
[email protected]
[email protected]
Presented at
CWEMF Watershed and Urban Hydrology
Modeling Workshop
June 22, 2007
Sacramento, CA
Systech Engineering, Inc
DSS for Watershed Approach
and TMDL Calculations
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Function of Modules
• Engineering Module – perform scientific
calculations
• Consensus Module – supply scientific
information to stakeholders for alternative
evaluations
• Data Module – update data & supply data to
model
• Knowledge Module – store reports, pertinent
information, spreadsheets
Systech Engineering, Inc
Theory of WARMF
• CSTR = divide a basin into canopy, land surface, soil
layers, stream segments, and lake layers
• Hydrologic network = link thousands of CSTR along
flow paths
• Mass-heat balance equation for each CSTR =
Advection + Diffusion + Sink + Source
• Sink & Source = kinetic expressions of processes
• Solve mass-heat balance equations for each CSTR
with hourly or daily time step
• Inputs change daily or hourly by meteorology and
point sources
• Simulate nonpoint source loads
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Simulated Watershed Processes
Subsurface
Processes
Mineral
Weathering
AMD
Septic
Systems
Organic
Matter Decay
Nitrification
Cation
Exchange
Plant Uptake
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Simulate Hydrologic & Water Quality Effects of
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Climate Change
Point Source Discharges
Air Pollution (Hg, SO4, NH4, NO3, etc)
Reservoir Operations, Soil Erosion,
Septic System, Urbanization, Land Use
Change
Water Diversions
Irrigations
Land Application (fertilizer, pesticide)
Best Management Practices
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CSTR Analog
Air Deposition
C1
C2
C3
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.
Cn
Qi
Laboratory Beaker
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Evasion
Qo
TDS
BOD
DO
PO4
NO3
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.
Algae
Idealized Model Compartment
Quicken Analogy
Modified from Jim Bowen, UNCC
Bank Account
≈ Watershed Model
Balancing Program
Quicken ≈ WARMF
Account Owner = Catchment or River Segment
Dollars = Mass
Checking, savings acct. = TSS, DO, nitrogen, etc.
Deposit = Inflow
Withdrawal = Outflow
Bank Fees = Reactions
Statement Period = Model Time Step
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Summary of Watershed Model
Meteorological
Conditions
Air Quality
Managed Flow
•Diversions
•Reservoir Releases
Point
Sources
Watershed Model
Watershed
Characteristics
•Land use
•Fertilizer
•Catchment areas/slope
•Soil layer characteristics
•Septic systems
Adjustable parameters:
•Precipitation weighting, temperature lapse
•Initial conditions
•Reaction rates
•BMPs
•Bank stability / vegetation factors
Model Output
•Stream flow
•Water quality (nutrients, DO, Chl-a, TSS)
•Loading
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COMPARISON Measured Data
•Hydrologic Conditions
•Water Quality
Data Requirements of WARMF
• Topographic data (DEM) to delineate a
watershed into catchments, rivers, lakes
• Site specific data
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Land Use
Meteorology
Air Quality / Rain Chemistry
Point Sources
Managed Flow (diversions & releases)
Observed Flow and Water Quality Data
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Model Outputs
• Time series of state variables, i.e.
pollutant concentrations of each CSTR
• GIS maps with bar charts for pollution
loads from various sub regions
• Color coded GIS maps showing areas
meeting or violating criteria
• Annual fluxes between compartments
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Peer Review
• Solicited by USEPA and Followed EPA Guidelines
• Peer Reviews
1.
2.
3.
4.
General Purpose Use and TMDLs: August 2000
Acid Mine Drainage: July 2001
Onsite Wastewater (Septic) Systems: May 2003
Mercury Transport: March 2004
• Reviewers included Local / National Experts
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EPA regional and headquarters
State WQ agencies
Research institutes and universities
Electric utilities and stakeholders
• WARMF modified to incorporate reviewer
recommendations
Systech Engineering, Inc
Live Demonstration
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On screen review and edit of data
Help menu
Data module and data update
Road map for TMDL module
Road map for Consensus module
Bar chart for pollution source
GIS map for water quality
Systech Engineering, Inc
Setting up WARMF for
New Applications
• Import topographic data (DEM) and
delineate the watershed
• Populate WARMF with data
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Land Use
Meteorology
Air Quality
Point Sources
Managed Flow (diversions & releases)
Observed Flow and Water Quality Data
Systech Engineering, Inc
WARMF Support
• Complete Technical Documentation,
User’s Manual, context-sensitive help
• WARMF User’s Group
• Professional help available
Level of service depends on need
– Set up map and projection
– & import data
– & hydrologic calibration
– & water quality calibration
– Scenarios, reports, stakeholders
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WARMF Applications
Mica Creek, ID
St. Louis River, MN
Hockanum River, CT
Chartiers Creek, PA
Turtle Creek, IN
Cheat River, WV
Napa
River, CA Truckee River, CA/NV Blue River, CO
Mokelumne River, CA
San Joaquin River, CA
San Juan River, NM
Santa Clara River, CA
Oostanaula Creek, TN
Santa Margarita River, CA
International:
Kyungan River, Korea
Techi Reservoir, Taiwan
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Holston River, TN, VA
Catawba River, NC/SC
For Hydrologic Analysis
• San Juan River, CO/NM
– Water shortage sharing alternatives
– Impact of climate change on water
shortage
• (Confidential Client)
– Water availability for industrial
development
– Impact of climate change on water
availability
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For Watershed Stewardship
• Catawba River, NC/SC
– Sponsored by a major stakeholder
– Used for hydro relicensing, sediment BMPs, nutrient
TMDLs for reservoirs
• Mokelumne River, CA
– Funded by state grant to local watershed authority
– Watershed management plan for source water
protection
• Mica Creek, ID
– Effects of forestry practices on water quality
– Model comparison of WARMF and HSPF
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For Water Quality Issues
• Turtle Creek Reservoir, IN
– Power plant cooling water reservoir with
deteriorating water quality (hardness)
– Sediment filling up the reservoir
– Determine their causes and potential solutions
• Oostanaula Creek, TN
– Impaired for coliform and sediment
• Truckee River, CA/NV
– Periphyton causes large DO fluctuations
– Buy water right from farmers to reduce nonpoint
nitrogen load & periphyton growth
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For TMDL Analyses
• Truckee River, CA/NV
– Trade point and nonpoint load of nitrogen for
TMDL
• Santa Clara River, CA
– TMDLs of NH4, NO3
• Catawba River, NC/SC
– TMDLs of coliform, Cu, phosphorus
• Cheat River, WV
– TMDLs of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn (acid mine drainage)
• San Joaquin River, CA
– Effect of nutrient loads from upstream farms on
dissolved oxygen of downstream estuary
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For Stormwater Discharge Permit
• City of Duluth, MN
– Urban trout streams receiving stormwater
discharges
– Calibrate WARMF to current land use and data
– Simulate flow and water quality for 1988 land use
– Simulate flow and water quality for 2020 land use
– Determine changes in flow and pollution loads
– Calculate effects of detention ponds and other
BMPs
– Prepare non-degradation report for MS4 permit
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For Cutting Edge Research
• Blue River, CO
– Simulate biozone processes occurring in
septic systems leaching field
– Evaluate benefits of onsite wastewater
treatment systems vs centralized sewers
• St. Louis River, MN
– Track mercury from atmosphere to fish
– Model bioaccumulation through food web
– Calculate mercury TMDL of drainage lakes
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