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the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), digestive tract, guts
or gut is the system of organs within multicellular organisms
that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients,
and expels the remaining matter. The major functions of the
gastrointestinal tract are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and
The intestine becomes inflamed , causing recurring
abdominal cramps and diarrhea.
Occur on young adults between ages 15 to 30 years
Long period of remission
Unknown cure
Genetic predisposition
Environmental conditions
Defects in immune regulation
Bacterial in origin
Destructive enzymes
Lack of protective substances in the bowel
Emotional disturbances
Common types of IBD
Crohn’s Disease
is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of
the gastrointestinal tract from anus to mouth, causing a wide variety
of symptoms
It can develop discontinously without sequence and skipping in all
alimentary tract , terminal ileum.
Peak onset is between ages 10 and 30
Cause is unknown but possible factors are autoimmune, genetics ,
infectious agents and environmental stress.
Lessions extend to all thickness of the bowel wall and are prone to
fistula formation.
Lesion have cobblestone appearance with sections on normal
mucosa between lesions called skip lesions
Children with Crohn’s disease may suffer delayed development and
stunted growth.
Diagnosed by colonoscopy : characteristic of aphthoid ulcers
showing areas of ulceration , narrowing, strictures and fistulas
Signs and Symptoms
Diarrhea – 5 to g liquid semiformed stools/day
Abdominal pain in right lower quadrant
Weight loss
Ulcerative Colitis
is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative
colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine,
specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes
characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon.
Cause is unknown but may have relationship to stress ,
genetics , infections and dietary factors
Diagnosed by sigmoidoscopy: characteristic edmatous,
friable mucosa with granular appearance with evident of
crypt abscesses
Signs and Symptoms
Diarrhea – 10 to 20 liquid stools per day often containing
blood and sometimes mucu
abdominal pain often in the lower right area
Rectal bleeding may be serious and persistent leading to
weight loss,
Diagnostic Exams
A complete blood count is done to check for anemia;
thrombocytosis, a high platelet count, is occasionally seen
Electrolyte studies and renal function tests are done, as
chronic diarrhea may be associated with hypokalemia,
hypomagnesemia and pre-renal failure.
Liver function tests are performed to screen for bile duct
involvement: primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Stool culture, to rule out parasites and infectious causes.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be measured, with an
elevated sedimentation rate indicating that an inflammatory
process is present.
C-reactive protein can be measured, with an elevated level
being another indication of inflammation.