Shakespearian Grammar & Puns Shakespeare’s writing can be difficult to read and understand because of -archaic words and verbs -allusions we are unfamiliar with -unusual sentence structure/word order Archaic words and verbs tenses • Using thou, thee, and thine -Means you, ye, and yours Look at the archaic words handout Present and past tense verbs To be -thou art -thou wert To have -thou hast -thou hadst To do -thou dost -thou didst • To allow – Thou may’st ***notice the endings -est and ‘st Sentence Structure and Word Order • Current word order often follows the pattern Subject Verb Object Dogs do smell fear. • Shakespearian word order can be any order. Fear dost dogs smell. Smell fear dost dogs. Dogs dost smell fear. Translating Shakespeare • Read from punctuation piece to punctuation so you can translate manageable parts • Look at the context of the sentence Complete the Translating Shakespeare Worksheet Puns • Humorous use of a word that suggests 2 or more meanings sometimes used to create deliberate confusion or for rhetorical effect • Usually used as a homonym (when 2 words sound the same but are spelled differently like soul and sole) OR if a word has more than one meaning like grave (serious or a burial place) • Walter Redfern (in Puns, Blackwell, London, 1984) succinctly said: "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." Sum Puns • I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it hit me. • There was a sign on the lawn at a drug rehab center that said 'Keep off the Grass'. • He drove his expensive car into a tree and found out how the Mercedes bends. See Handout on PUNS Shakespeare Puns Romeo and Juliet (Act I scene IV) Mercutio: “Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance.” Romeo: “Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes With nimble soles; I have a soul of lead So stakes me to the ground I cannot move.” Context: Romeo is reluctant to attend a party because he is suffering from a broken heart.