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Difference Between a Rock
and a Mineral
 A rock is a consolidated mixture of one or more minerals. Ex.
Granite and Basalt.
 In some cases a pure mineral may also be classified as a rock.
 Mineral
 A mineral must satisfy the following conditions;
1) Occur in nature
4) Definite chemical composition
2) Inorganic
5) Definite molecular structure
3) Solid
What is a Mineral?
 A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a definite chemical
composition and molecular structure.
 Minerals can consist of elements or compounds.
Majority are compounds.
Example Galena (PbS) and Pyrite (FeS2)
 Native Minerals consist of only one type of element.
Examples include Gold, Silver, Sulfur, Diamond, Copper.
Rock Forming Minerals
 The rock cycle suggest that ALL rock types originally
started as igneous rock (solidified magma).
 Igneous rocks form from Eight minerals called the
rock forming minerals.
1) Olivine
5) Plagioclase Feldspar
2) Pyroxene
6) Orthoclase Feldspar
3) Amphibole
7) Muscovite Mica
4) Biotite Mica
8) Quartz
What is a Rock?
 An Aggregate of minerals.
 Rocks are generally composed of more than one mineral.
For example, Granite consist of;
Quartz, Feldspar, Hornblende and Mica.
Some common rocks include;
Granite, Rhyolite, Basalt, Gabbro, Andesite, Diorite,
obsidian, Pumice, etc...
Conglomerate, Sandstone, Shale, Limestone, etc...
Marble, Slate, Gneiss, Schist, Phyllite, etc...
Sample Problem
Citing two differences, distinguish between a rock
and a mineral.
Chemical elements are the building blocks of minerals
whereas minerals are the building blocks of rocks.
Minerals are pure solids, where all the molecules have the
same definite chemical composition and
structure,whereas rocks are a mixtures of minerals often
appearing multi-colored.
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