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LIF101: Anatomy
American Academy of Art
Week 5 Lecture: Hip and Leg Bones
Bones of the hip and leg are:
• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________
The Pelvis
• bony ring at base of spine
• made up of sacrum, coccyx, and 2 ilia (singular: ilium)
• articulates superiorly with L5 vertebra
• articulates inferiorly with both femurs
• houses and protects pelvic organs
• The sacrum and the ilia come together at _________________________ joints
• The two ilia meet anteriorly at the ________________________________________.
Parts of the Pelvis
• iliac crests (surface landmarks)
• anterior superior iliac spines (surface landmarks)
• posterior superior iliac spines (surface landmarks; form dimples on lower back.)
• pubic tubercles
• acetabulum (in which head of femur rests)
Inguinal Ligaments
• run from _________________________ to _________________________ on anterior pelvis
• are conspicuous surface landmarks (sometimes called inguinal furrows.)
• define the lower border of the abdomen.
• The iliac crests meet the inguinal ligaments at “corners” on anterior hips.
The Femur
• bone of the thigh
• longest bone in the human body
• slants medially from hip to knee
Parts of the Femur
• head (faces medially and rests in acetabulum of ilium)
• neck
• greater trochanter (surface landmark)
• lesser trochanter
• medial epicondyle (subtle surface landmark)
• lateral epicondyle (subtle surface landmark)
The Patella
• largest sesamoid bone in the human body
• held in place superiorly by the __________________________________
and inferiorly by the __________________________________.
• is an obvious surface landmark
• sits above the knee joint when the leg is straight.
• slides down over the knee joint when leg bends.
• is slightly concave on its posterior surface where it rests against the femur. (But there is no direct
articulation with the femur.)
The Tibia and the Fibula— General Information
• The tibia is the wider of the two lower leg bones.
• The tibia is more medial
• The tibia articulates superiorly with the femur.
• The fibula is the narrower of the two lower leg bones.
• The fibula is more lateral.
• The fibular articulates superiorly with the tibia.
• The fibula provides extra support for the lower leg.
• both the tibia and the fibular articulate distally with the _________________________.
Parts of the Tibia
• tibial tuberosity (surface landmark just below the patella)
• anterior crest (surface landmark)
• medial and lateral surfaces (medial surface is a landmark; lateral surface is covered by muscle.)
• medial malleolus (landmark on the medial ankle)
• anterior crest + medial surface = shin
Parts of the Fibula
• head (surface landmark at proximal end)
• lateral malleolus (surface landmark at distal end, on ankle)
• lateral malleolus of the fibula is always more distal than medial malleolus of tibia.
Housing of the Ankle
• _________________________ forms roof and medial wall of ankle housing.
• _________________________ forms lateral wall of ankle housing.
• housing is closed at the sides but open at front and back, so…
• ankle has free up and down movement, but limited side-to-side movement.
Review of Pelvis and Leg Surface Landmarks
• inguinal ligaments
• iliac crests
• anterior superior iliac spines
• posterior superior iliac spines
• greater trochanter of femur
• patella
• tibial tuberosity
• anterior crest and medial surface of tibia
• medial malleolus of tibia
• lateral malleolus of fibula
• head of fibula
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