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The .NET Framework
The .NET Framework
The .NET Framework is Microsoft’s
distributed run-time environment for
creating, deploying, and using
applications over the Internet.
Chapter 21 presents the concepts and
defines the terms that will help you
understand how the .NET
architecture adds to Windows a new
operating system layer called the
Common Language Runtime (CLR).
Common Language Runtime
The Common Language Runtime (CLR)
is an operating system environment
that can execute computer code
compiled from several different
When you install the .NET
framework, the CLR gets added on as
a new layer of your computer’s
operating system.
Managed Code
(Compiled from a CLR-compliant programming language)
Common Language
Runtime (CLR)
Call upon the traditional
Windows OS to execute
system functions, such as
opening a file
Win32 OS
(The traditional windows operating system)
New features added to
Windows by the CLR, such as
automatic garbage collection
Microsoft Intermediate
Language (MSIL)
When you write a .NET computer program
in a language such as Visual Basic, C#, or
JScript, your code needs to be compiled
into an executable format that the CLR can
The Microsoft Intermediate Language
(MSIL) defines the format of the compiled
computer code that the Common Language
Runtime (CLR) executes.
Just-In-Time Compiler
In the .NET framework, the Just-In-Time
Compiler (JITter) is the operating system
component that creates on demand the
MSIL code that executes in the CLR when
it runs a program written in a CLRcompliant programming language such as
Visual Basic, C#, and JScript.
For mission-critical applications in which
speed is important, it is possible to precompile the code and thereby avoid the
delay that can occur when a program first
A namespace is a logical division
intended to prevent name conflicts
between elements in a hierarchical
organization of objects, interfaces,
and functions.
The .NET Framework
Class Library
A class is a logical partitioning of the
objects, methods, functions and data that
perform a given task within a namespace.
The .NET Framework Class Library is
comprised of the namespaces that provide
access to system functionality and serve as
the foundation on which .NET applications,
components, and controls are built.
The built-in namespaces begin with System
or Microsoft.
ASP.NET Web Forms
A Web Forms Page is an ASP.NET
developmental architecture that uses
a code-behind programming model to
separate the design of an active
server page from its code.
The ASP.NET page has the filename
extension .aspx, while the codebehind page has the filename
extension of a CLR-compliant
programming language.
ASP.NET Web Form
Web Services
A Web Service is a type of computer
application that receives and responds to
XML requests received over HTTP from
clients on the Internet.
Because HTTP is the most basic protocol
on the Internet, the Web Service enables
you to write program components that can
serve any end-user or computer in the
world to which you provide access.
Web Services
Simple Object Access Protocol
The Simple Object Access Protocol
(SOAP) is an XML vocabulary describing
function calls and their procedures.
SOAP is the most popular wire format for
communicating with Web Services.
To enable universal communication, Web
Services can also communicate using HTTPGET and HTTP-POST, which are wire
format protocols understandable by any
computer on the Web.
ADO.NET is a new collection of active data
objects that improve on the former ADO
architecture in several important ways.
First, ADO.NET replaces the Recordset with
a new structure called the Dataset, which is
a cache of records retrieved from the
Unlike the Recordset, which contains a single
table of data, the Dataset can contain
multiple, separate tables and maintain the
relations among them.
ADO.NET (continued)
Second, ADO.NET makes more
efficient use of database resources by
disconnecting from the database after
filling the dataset.
This enables the database to serve
more users as traffic at a Web site
ADO.NET (continued)
Third, ADO.NET uses XML to communicate
with external processes. Because XML is a
plain text protocol, database results can
pass through firewalls that block nonHTML transmissions.
Fourth, because XML enables rich data
objects to be communicated in plain text,
ADO.NET increases performance by
avoiding the time-consuming step of datatype conversion.