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(1) (i)When was this built.
(ii) Where is it located?
i) around 150AD (In the reign of Antoninus Pius (after
ii) Baalbek in Lebanon
Both parts of the answer are needed
(2) (i) Where on the building was
the peripteral colonnade?
(ii) Identify ONE feature of this
i) the detached pillars surrounding the whole temple
ii) The colonnade is vaulted / it has unfluted
columns / the columns are Corinthian.
Both (i) and (ii) are needed for Achievement
(3) Identify ONE feature that
adds to the feeling of height in
the interior of this structure.
Eg the interior engaged columns set on pedestals.
OR two levels of niches
Other answers possible
ONE feature needed for ach
(4) (i) Name the god usually associated
with this structure.
(ii)Explain why this association is made.
(i) Bacchus / Dionysus
(ii) Eg sculptured reliefs of the god’s birth on the
entrance to the cella. Other answers possible.
Both parts of the answer required for
(5) Identify TWO other Roman
structures that were used for the same
Where was each located?
• Pantheon, located in Rome
• Maison Carrée, located in Nimes.
TWO temples and their location are required for Achievement.
(6) Compare in detail TWO
architectural features of the
exterior of this structure with
those of ONE of the structures
identified in your answer to (5).
Eg: comparison with the Maison Carrée:
• the Maison Carrée is 34 m long by 15 m wide, whereas this temple is twice the size
• the Maison Carrée has a hexastyle porch, whereas this temple is octostyle
• the Maison Carrée has engaged columns around the sides and back (pseudo-peripteral),
whereas this temple has a peripteral colonnade.
TWO detailed comparisons are required for Merit.
The comparison must state more than “one temple has this feature and the other doesn’t”
(7) (i)Discuss the decoration of the structure.
You must describe in detail at least TWO
features. Do not repeat material used
elsewhere in your answers.
(ii) Evaluate the overall effect of this
decoration. [EXC]
(i) Decoration
• Engaged columns on pedestal bases along the sides of the cella.
• Between the columns were two rows of niches, one with entablature and pediment, the other with arches, the
row of niches presumably held statues.
• The concave ceiling of the exterior colonnade was decorated with busts of Mars, Ceres, Vulcan and other
They were set within a hexagon and surrounded by floral patterns.
(ii) Evaluation of effect
The effect of the interior engaged columns and niches is to overwhelm the spectator with the lavishness of the
ornamentation. However, although the whole wall space has
been elaborately decorated, there remains an illusion of space, due to the recessed planes created by the niches
and the sense of movement along the wall.
An Excellence answer must Include a detailed discussion of at least TWO features of the decoration and ONE
comment on effect. If more than two features of decoration are discussed, the answer for (i) can be less detailed.
(8) (i)Evaluate the propaganda value of this
building. You must make at least TWO points.
(ii) To what extent did Hadrian’s baths in
Lepcis Magna fulfil the same propaganda
You must make at least TWO points. [MER]
(i) Evaluation of propaganda value:
• the location of a temple dedicated to a deity with origins in the east (Bacchus) alongside the even larger temple of the
Roman chief god, Jupiter
• the presence of identifiably Roman elements (high podium and frontal aspect) in the temple mixed with local features (eg
the inner shrine) reveals an attempt by the Romans to make the assimilation of Roman religion easier for the local peoples
• decorative features are Middle Eastern, but located on a Roman background – for example the hexagonal patterns carved
into the semi-circular ceiling of the peristyle
• the placement of an impressive building as a symbol of the rewards of Roman rule.
(ii) Propaganda functions of Lepcis Magna:
Many different answers are possible. Here is a sample of the sorts of points a candidate might make:
• the building at Baalbeck is not associated with the glorification of a specific emperor, whereas the baths are very much a
glorification of Hadrian as a munificent emperor
• both buildings are large and are a dominating feature in their towns – and as such, are a constant reminder of the
presence of the Romans
• while both buildings reflect Roman features of design and culture, the baths lack the religious dimension that is clearly
obvious in the temple of Bacchus
• there is little or no local content in the design of the baths – they could be any imperial baths anywhere in the Roman
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