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The Rise of Islam Summer School Muhammad • Born into powerful Meccan Family • Became Business manager for Khadijah, a wealthy business woman whom he would later marry. • About age 40 (610) while meditating in a cave outside Mecca, the voice of the Angel Gabriel came to him and gave him Gods word. • He was convinced he was the last prophet. • 613 he begins to preach around Mecca Islam Basics • The Five Pillars – Faith – There is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. – Prayer – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca – Alms – Support those less fortunate through special religious tax – Fasting – During holy month of Ramadan, fast between dawn and sunset. – Pilgrimage – The Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca must be performed at least once in their lifetime. Islam Basics • Islam is name of religion • A Muslim is one who follows Islam • The Qur’an is holy book of Islam containing the revelations given to Muhammad by God • Umma – Muslim religious community • Ulama – Scholar class of Islam who study Qur’an Links to Judaism and Christianity • They all worship the same god! • Differences – Muslims Believe Jesus was a prophet, not son of God – Muslims believe Muhammad was a prophet same as Abraham and Moses – The Qur’an perfects the earlier revelations and is Gods final word. – Muslim holy law or Shari’a requires Muslim leaders to extend tolerance to Christians and Jews because they are “people of the book” Muhammad’s Death 632 • Muhammad was chased out of Mecca in 620 to Medina. There he finds many who will follow him and becomes great leader. • 630 he returns to Mecca with great Army and city surrenders. City converts to Islam and most of the Arabian peninsula by the time of his death in 632. • The tribes of the Arabian peninsula are united for the first time ever under than banner of Islam. Spread of Islam • The four “Great Caliphs” – Abu-Bakr – All of Arabia by 634 – Umar – Syria and Lower Egypt – Uthman and Ali – All of Middle East by 661 • 750 Islamic Umayyad Empire from India to Spain and North Africa Islamic Split • After the death of Ali who was the son and cousin to Muhammad, differences arose over who should lead Islam. • Some believed following the Umayyad’s was the way. Others believed only the blood of Muhammad should lead. • Those following the descendents of Ali and Muhammad become the Shi’a. Those who follow Umayyad’s become known as Sunni. Umayyad and Abbasid Empires • Umayyad – Assassinates Ali in 661. – Move capital to Damascus, Syria – Made easier to control territories – Rebelling groups overthrow Umayyad in 750. • Abbasids 750-1258 – Move capital to new city of Baghdad – Baghdad sits on vital trade routes making the Abbasids very rich and powerful – Due to size of Empire, Individual Islamic States begin to emerge reducing the power and influence of the Abbasids and they lose control by 1258 Muslim Culture • Advances in Science – Math and Astronomy needed to correctly calculate the proper times for prayer. Also deep curiosity about the world and Muhammad encouraged learning. – Collecting knowledge • House of Wisdom – Baghdad – Scholars from different cultures and beliefs translated texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elsewhere into Arabic Muslim Culture Cont. • Mathematics – Muslim scholars believed that math was basis for all knowledge. – Al-Khwarizmi – Mathematician Writes a textbook called “The Art of Bringing Together Unknowns to Match a Known Quantity” • Technique was called “al-jabr” • Scientific Method – Muslims did not use greek methods of science based in Logic. The favored a new method based in observation and experimentation. The Crusades • In 1093, Byzantine Emperor Alexus sent a letter to France asking for help against Muslim Turks threatening Constantinople. • Pope Urban II also read the letter and called for Christians to go on a Crusade to re-take the Holy Lands. • Crusaders first stop Constantinople, they looted the city and found no Muslim warriors to fight. Jerusalem • By the time the first Crusade reaches Jerusalem, 75% of the army is dead. • After long siege, in 1099, they take city. • Muslims, Jews and Christians who had been living peaceably in the city for years were killed by the Crusaders. • Residents thought they could hide their gold and jewels by swallowing them. • To make sure they collected ALL of the wealth of the city, huge groups of Christians, Jews and Muslims were killed and then burned, so their valuables could be easily found. Saladin • Strong Muslim leader Saladin, formed Army to retake Jerusalem. • In 1187 he sieges city and is on verge of conquering it. • To prevent the destruction of the city and the holy sites, He agrees to give safe passage to any Christian or Jew who wants to leave the city. • He also agrees to allow any Christians or Jews to continue to live in the city under Muslim rule. • The city surrenders and he keeps his promise. • For Muslims the intolerance and prejudice shown by the Christian crusaders leaves bitterness and hatred. Assignment • Questions: – p. 308 #3-6 – p. 316 #3-5 – p. 322 #3-6 The Rise of the Ottoman’s Summer School 2012 After the Abbasid Empire • Muslims form individual Muslim kingdoms throughout the old Abbasid Empire. • Fatimids - N.Africa • Moors – Spain • Safavids – Persia • Turks – Anatolia – Located present day southwestern Turkey – Military Society – Leader – Osman • West called him Othman and his followers Ottomans Anatolia United • Osman Unites Anatolia into a small Islamic state by 1300. – Military success based on Gunpowder – First people to use cannon as weapon of attack • Son Orkhan, names himself Sultan or “One with Power” • 1361 Capture Adrianople – Treated those they conquered with respect. – All Muslims needed to serve in Army – Non-Muslims needed to pay tax Mehmed II • Mehmed II finally conquers surrounded Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453. – Ottomans had been trying to take the city for over 150 years. – Mehmed was tolerant of other religions and opened the city for all. Renames city Istanbul. Selim and Suleyman • Selim - Mehmed’s Grandson – Conquers Safavids 1514 and moves south into Palestine, Syria, and N. Africa. – Takes control of Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina • Suleyman – Son of Selim – Moves Army’s into Europe – Pushes as far as Vienna Austria • Europeans finally defeat him 1526. • High Point of Ottoman Empire Ottoman Decline • Ottomans hold power till WWI but were in great decline for over 300 years. • Many lines of incompetent Sultans allow for poor management of huge empire • Also it became custom for Sultan to have his brothers strangled to prevent a struggle for power in the empire. Assignment • Questions: –P.333 #3-6 –P.766 #3-6 The Creation of Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict World Studies Summer School History • Jews driven out of Palestine around A.D. 135 and settle in various places around the world. • Muslims had controlled Palestine, with some exceptions, for the last 1200 years. • By the late 1800s the Ottoman Empire is in control of Palestine. • By early 1900s, Zionists from Europe and the U.S. begin buying land in Palestine from Ottomans who need money to finance their large declining empire. Zionism • Zionism is the belief that the Jewish people should return to their rightful home in Palestine. • Zionism movement grows between late 1800s and early 1900s • Before WWI, Palestine was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. • After Ottoman defeat, British were mandated to control Palestine as part of the Treaty of Versailles During WWI • Jews made up large percentages in central and Eastern Europe. • Hated Russia for the Genocide of Jews in Pogroms…. – Therefore supported Germany • 1917 U.S. gets ready to enter war. • Britain did not want U.S. Jews supporting Germany • Britain Issues Balfour Declaration Balfour Declaration • Lord Balfour, a member of the house of Lords, issues declaration that after war Britain will promote and aid Jews in obtaining a Jewish homeland in Palestine. • War ends and Britain is given control of Palestine through the British Mandate • However Britain also wants to gain favor of Arabs for access to new oil fields. • Need to decide who to support?? British Mandate • British begin to be pressured for Jewish State. • Arabs oppose growing Jewish presence. • 1920s-1940s Jewish land purchases increase from absentee Arab landowners even though British have outlawed such purchases. • WWII Holocaust brings Jewish cause comes to center stage. And sympathy for Jewish state grows, especially from America. • Jewish Organizing for state continues and violence against British and Arabs escalates British Mandate Cont.. • Violence begins between Zionists and Palestinians and Zionists and British. • Zionists more organized and better funded than Palestinians. • Palestinian markets are bombed by Zionists attempting to get them to leave. • British crack down on Zionists with Military. • Zionists Bomb British headquarters at King David Hotel killing 91. United Nations and Partition • With support of U.S. and others, Newly formed U.N. tackles issue of Palestine. • U.N. votes for partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state with Jerusalem to be an international city owned by neither. • Jews make up 34% of population but receive 55 percent of area. • Arabs countries universally reject plan State of Israel • May 14th, 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaims Independent State of Israel. • May 15th 6 Arab countries attack Israel • First Arab-Israeli War 1948 • Israel wins and seizes half the land given for Arab state during war. • Land set aside for Arab State never happens. • Some Arab nations grab land for themselves. • Especially Jordan-the West Bank, Egypt-Gaza Strip 1956 Suez Crisis • Second Arab-Israeli War • Egypt seizes control of the Suez Canal – Had been controlled by British • British get Israel with the support of French Air Force to retake canal. • They quickly defeat the Egyptians and take canal. • With pressure from Soviet Union and U.S., British, French and Israeli’s withdraw from Egypt leaving the canal in Egypt’s control ending the crisis. PLO Created • 1964 – Palestinian Liberation Organization formed. To Liberate Palestine from Israel • Leader is Yasir Arafat • Depending on your point of view PLO is: – Terrorist group trying to destroy Israel – Humanitarian group trying to help Palestinians being oppressed by Israel. • Group in actuality does BOTH! 1967 Six-Day War • Tensions had been building between Arab Countries and Israel for some time. • With Arab countries preparing an attack Israel launches surprise attack destroying air forces in Jordan, Syria, Iran, and Egypt. • Israeli Army then moves quickly conquering Arab forces on three different fronts 1967 Six-Day War - Results • Israel takes control of West Bank – Most importantly – The Old City of Jerusalem • Israel takes Sinai peninsula from Egypt • Israel takes Golan Heights • Palestinians living in Jerusalem were given choice of Israeli Citizenship or Jordanian. Most chose Jordan. Yom Kippur War • October 1973 • Egyptian President Sadat plans joint Arab attack on Jewish Holy Day of Yom Kippur • Israeli’s caught by surprise and take great casualties as well as lose some of territory captured during 1967 war. • Israel counter-attacks and regains most of lost territory. • Both side agree to a truce after several weeks of fighting. First Efforts of Peace • November 1977 Anwar Sadat Stuns the world by extending a hand to Israel. • He goes before Israeli Parliament and asks for Israel to join him in peace. • 1979 – Camp David Accords (Facilitated by Carter) – Egypt Recognizes Israel’s right to exist. – Israel in turn returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt Ramifications • Egypt becomes first Arab country to recognize Israel. • World leaders praise Sadat. • Other Arab countries condemn Sadat • 1981 Muslim extremists assassinate Sadat • New President Mubarak pledges to maintain peace with Israel Fighting between Israel and PLO intensify • Palestinians attack Israel-Israel bombs PLO camps • PLO begins hiding in Southern Lebanon • Israel invades southern Lebanon and get involved with the Lebanon Civil War • Israel eventually with draws Intifada 1987-1992 • Campaign of civil disobedience or uprising by Palestinians against Israel • Boycotts, demonstrations, attacks on soldiers, rock throwing by teenagers • Intifada accomplishes little. Does effect world opinion though, putting pressure on Israel to open peace talks with Palestinians Oslo Peace Accords 1993 • Israel grants Palestinians partial self rule in Gaza and West Bank. • Creation of Palestinian Authority • PA must recognize Israel right to exist • Further Steps to be taken to increase PA rule in future. • Israeli Prime Minister Assassinated by Jewish extremist 1995 1995-2001 • Further expansion of the agreements at Oslo never happen. • Both sides never fully cooperate with decisions made. • Attacks by Palestinians continue and escalate. • Peace process moves backward. Assignment • Questions –P. 1023 # 1, 3-8 The U.S. and Iran • After WWII the Iranian Shah embraced Western governments and wealthy oil companies. • Iranian Nationalists and Islamic Traditionalists resented this relationship. • Iran democratically elected a new Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq in 1952. • Mossadeq plans to Nationalize the Iranian oil industry and remove western companies from power. Coup d’etat • The U.S. and British were determined to protect their oil interests in Iran and restore the Shah back to power. • MI6 (British Special Forces) and the CIA instituted a Coup d'état or an overthrow and removal of Mossadeq in 1953. • The U.S. and British put the Shah back into power greatly angering conservative Muslims and Iranians • The Shah stays in power with an absolute dictatorship that allows no opposition and imprisons and kills any who oppose him for the next 25 years. Iranians Revolt • The Iranian conservative Muslim leaders known as Ayatollahs, begin opposition from exile outside the country. – Send tape recorded messages which are played throughout country. • Excited by the messages, Iranians riot in every major city in late 1978. • Faced with overwhelming opposition, the Shah flees Iran in 1979. • Ayatollah Khomeini returns and established Iran as an Islamic state Iran’s Anti-U.S. Policies • Once Khomeini took over, Iran’s hatred for the U.S. took center stage because of our support for the Shah and because the U.S. gave him asylum when he fled. • The U.S. refused to extradite him to stand trial in Iran for his crimes against the people. • Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Iran and took more than 60 Americans hostage. The Crisis and current Relations • The hostages were prisoners for 444 days before being released in 1981. • Iran began a war with Iraq in 1980 and the U.S. openly supported and aided Iraq. • What was not known until years later is that we also secretly gave weapons to Iran through Saudi Arabia to keep the balance of power in the region. The war ended in1988. • Iran has slowly began to undergo reforms over the last 7-8 years. The U.S. still has no diplomatic relations with Iran and concern grows over their nuclear power program and that it could lead to nuclear weapons.