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Transcript
The Rise of Islam
Summer School
Muhammad
• Born into powerful Meccan Family
• Became Business manager for Khadijah, a
wealthy business woman whom he would later
marry.
• About age 40 (610) while meditating in a cave
outside Mecca, the voice of the Angel Gabriel
came to him and gave him Gods word.
• He was convinced he was the last prophet.
• 613 he begins to preach around Mecca
Islam Basics
• The Five Pillars
– Faith – There is only one God, Allah, and
Muhammad is his prophet.
– Prayer – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
– Alms – Support those less fortunate through
special religious tax
– Fasting – During holy month of Ramadan,
fast between dawn and sunset.
– Pilgrimage – The Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca
must be performed at least once in their
lifetime.
Islam Basics
• Islam is name of religion
• A Muslim is one who follows Islam
• The Qur’an is holy book of Islam
containing the revelations given to
Muhammad by God
• Umma – Muslim religious community
• Ulama – Scholar class of Islam who study
Qur’an
Links to Judaism and Christianity
• They all worship the same god!
• Differences
– Muslims Believe Jesus was a prophet, not son of God
– Muslims believe Muhammad was a prophet same as
Abraham and Moses
– The Qur’an perfects the earlier revelations and is
Gods final word.
– Muslim holy law or Shari’a requires Muslim leaders to
extend tolerance to Christians and Jews because
they are “people of the book”
Muhammad’s Death 632
• Muhammad was chased out of Mecca in 620 to
Medina. There he finds many who will follow him
and becomes great leader.
• 630 he returns to Mecca with great Army and
city surrenders. City converts to Islam and most
of the Arabian peninsula by the time of his death
in 632.
• The tribes of the Arabian peninsula are united
for the first time ever under than banner of Islam.
Spread of Islam
• The four “Great Caliphs”
– Abu-Bakr – All of Arabia by 634
– Umar – Syria and Lower Egypt
– Uthman and Ali – All of Middle East by 661
• 750 Islamic Umayyad Empire from India to
Spain and North Africa
Islamic Split
• After the death of Ali who was the son and
cousin to Muhammad, differences arose
over who should lead Islam.
• Some believed following the Umayyad’s
was the way. Others believed only the
blood of Muhammad should lead.
• Those following the descendents of Ali
and Muhammad become the Shi’a. Those
who follow Umayyad’s become known as
Sunni.
Umayyad and Abbasid Empires
• Umayyad – Assassinates Ali in 661.
– Move capital to Damascus, Syria
– Made easier to control territories
– Rebelling groups overthrow Umayyad in 750.
• Abbasids 750-1258
– Move capital to new city of Baghdad
– Baghdad sits on vital trade routes making the
Abbasids very rich and powerful
– Due to size of Empire, Individual Islamic States begin
to emerge reducing the power and influence of the
Abbasids and they lose control by 1258
Muslim Culture
• Advances in Science
– Math and Astronomy needed to correctly
calculate the proper times for prayer. Also
deep curiosity about the world and
Muhammad encouraged learning.
– Collecting knowledge
• House of Wisdom – Baghdad
– Scholars from different cultures and beliefs translated
texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elsewhere into
Arabic
Muslim Culture Cont.
• Mathematics
– Muslim scholars believed that math was basis for
all knowledge.
– Al-Khwarizmi – Mathematician Writes a textbook
called “The Art of Bringing Together Unknowns to
Match a Known Quantity”
• Technique was called “al-jabr”
• Scientific Method
– Muslims did not use greek methods of science
based in Logic. The favored a new method based
in observation and experimentation.
The Crusades
• In 1093, Byzantine Emperor Alexus sent a
letter to France asking for help against
Muslim Turks threatening Constantinople.
• Pope Urban II also read the letter and
called for Christians to go on a Crusade to
re-take the Holy Lands.
• Crusaders first stop Constantinople, they
looted the city and found no Muslim
warriors to fight.
Jerusalem
• By the time the first Crusade reaches Jerusalem,
75% of the army is dead.
• After long siege, in 1099, they take city.
• Muslims, Jews and Christians who had been
living peaceably in the city for years were killed
by the Crusaders.
• Residents thought they could hide their gold and
jewels by swallowing them.
• To make sure they collected ALL of the wealth of
the city, huge groups of Christians, Jews and
Muslims were killed and then burned, so their
valuables could be easily found.
Saladin
• Strong Muslim leader Saladin, formed Army to retake
Jerusalem.
• In 1187 he sieges city and is on verge of conquering it.
• To prevent the destruction of the city and the holy sites,
He agrees to give safe passage to any Christian or Jew
who wants to leave the city.
• He also agrees to allow any Christians or Jews to
continue to live in the city under Muslim rule.
• The city surrenders and he keeps his promise.
• For Muslims the intolerance and prejudice shown by the
Christian crusaders leaves bitterness and hatred.
Assignment
• Questions:
– p. 308 #3-6
– p. 316 #3-5
– p. 322 #3-6
The Rise of the Ottoman’s
Summer School 2012
After the Abbasid Empire
• Muslims form individual Muslim kingdoms
throughout the old Abbasid Empire.
• Fatimids - N.Africa
• Moors – Spain
• Safavids – Persia
• Turks – Anatolia
– Located present day southwestern Turkey
– Military Society
– Leader – Osman
• West called him Othman and his followers Ottomans
Anatolia United
• Osman Unites Anatolia into a small Islamic
state by 1300.
– Military success based on Gunpowder
– First people to use cannon as weapon of attack
• Son Orkhan, names himself Sultan or “One
with Power”
• 1361 Capture Adrianople
– Treated those they conquered with respect.
– All Muslims needed to serve in Army
– Non-Muslims needed to pay tax
Mehmed II
• Mehmed II finally conquers surrounded
Byzantine capital of Constantinople in
1453.
– Ottomans had been trying to take the city for
over 150 years.
– Mehmed was tolerant of other religions and
opened the city for all. Renames city Istanbul.
Selim and Suleyman
• Selim - Mehmed’s Grandson
– Conquers Safavids 1514 and moves south
into Palestine, Syria, and N. Africa.
– Takes control of Holy Cities of Mecca and
Medina
• Suleyman – Son of Selim
– Moves Army’s into Europe
– Pushes as far as Vienna Austria
• Europeans finally defeat him 1526.
• High Point of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Decline
• Ottomans hold power till WWI but were in
great decline for over 300 years.
• Many lines of incompetent Sultans allow
for poor management of huge empire
• Also it became custom for Sultan to have
his brothers strangled to prevent a
struggle for power in the empire.
Assignment
• Questions:
–P.333 #3-6
–P.766 #3-6
The Creation of Israel and the
Arab-Israeli Conflict
World Studies Summer School
History
• Jews driven out of Palestine around A.D. 135
and settle in various places around the world.
• Muslims had controlled Palestine, with some
exceptions, for the last 1200 years.
• By the late 1800s the Ottoman Empire is in
control of Palestine.
• By early 1900s, Zionists from Europe and the
U.S. begin buying land in Palestine from
Ottomans who need money to finance their
large declining empire.
Zionism
• Zionism is the belief that the Jewish people
should return to their rightful home in Palestine.
• Zionism movement grows between late 1800s
and early 1900s
• Before WWI, Palestine was controlled by the
Ottoman Empire.
• After Ottoman defeat, British were mandated to
control Palestine as part of the Treaty of
Versailles
During WWI
• Jews made up large percentages in
central and Eastern Europe.
• Hated Russia for the Genocide of Jews in
Pogroms….
– Therefore supported Germany
• 1917 U.S. gets ready to enter war.
• Britain did not want U.S. Jews supporting
Germany
• Britain Issues Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
• Lord Balfour, a member of the house of
Lords, issues declaration that after war
Britain will promote and aid Jews in
obtaining a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
• War ends and Britain is given control of
Palestine through the British Mandate
• However Britain also wants to gain favor of
Arabs for access to new oil fields.
• Need to decide who to support??
British Mandate
• British begin to be pressured for Jewish State.
• Arabs oppose growing Jewish presence.
• 1920s-1940s Jewish land purchases increase
from absentee Arab landowners even though
British have outlawed such purchases.
• WWII Holocaust brings Jewish cause comes to
center stage. And sympathy for Jewish state
grows, especially from America.
• Jewish Organizing for state continues and
violence against British and Arabs escalates
British Mandate Cont..
• Violence begins between Zionists and
Palestinians and Zionists and British.
• Zionists more organized and better funded
than Palestinians.
• Palestinian markets are bombed by
Zionists attempting to get them to leave.
• British crack down on Zionists with
Military.
• Zionists Bomb British headquarters at King
David Hotel killing 91.
United Nations and Partition
• With support of U.S. and others, Newly
formed U.N. tackles issue of Palestine.
• U.N. votes for partition of Palestine into a
Jewish state and an Arab state with
Jerusalem to be an international city
owned by neither.
• Jews make up 34% of population but
receive 55 percent of area.
• Arabs countries universally reject plan
State of Israel
• May 14th, 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaims
Independent State of Israel.
• May 15th 6 Arab countries attack Israel
• First Arab-Israeli War 1948
• Israel wins and seizes half the land given for Arab
state during war.
• Land set aside for Arab State never happens.
• Some Arab nations grab land for themselves.
• Especially Jordan-the West Bank, Egypt-Gaza Strip
1956 Suez Crisis
• Second Arab-Israeli War
• Egypt seizes control of the Suez Canal
– Had been controlled by British
• British get Israel with the support of French Air
Force to retake canal.
• They quickly defeat the Egyptians and take
canal.
• With pressure from Soviet Union and U.S.,
British, French and Israeli’s withdraw from Egypt
leaving the canal in Egypt’s control ending the
crisis.
PLO Created
• 1964 – Palestinian Liberation Organization
formed. To Liberate Palestine from Israel
• Leader is Yasir Arafat
• Depending on your point of view PLO is:
– Terrorist group trying to destroy Israel
– Humanitarian group trying to help Palestinians
being oppressed by Israel.
• Group in actuality does BOTH!
1967 Six-Day War
• Tensions had been building between Arab
Countries and Israel for some time.
• With Arab countries preparing an attack
Israel launches surprise attack destroying
air forces in Jordan, Syria, Iran, and Egypt.
• Israeli Army then moves quickly
conquering Arab forces on three different
fronts
1967 Six-Day War - Results
• Israel takes control of West Bank
– Most importantly – The Old City of Jerusalem
• Israel takes Sinai peninsula from Egypt
• Israel takes Golan Heights
• Palestinians living in Jerusalem were
given choice of Israeli Citizenship or
Jordanian. Most chose Jordan.
Yom Kippur War
• October 1973
• Egyptian President Sadat plans joint Arab
attack on Jewish Holy Day of Yom Kippur
• Israeli’s caught by surprise and take great
casualties as well as lose some of territory
captured during 1967 war.
• Israel counter-attacks and regains most of
lost territory.
• Both side agree to a truce after several
weeks of fighting.
First Efforts of Peace
• November 1977 Anwar Sadat Stuns the
world by extending a hand to Israel.
• He goes before Israeli Parliament and
asks for Israel to join him in peace.
• 1979 – Camp David Accords (Facilitated
by Carter)
– Egypt Recognizes Israel’s right to exist.
– Israel in turn returns the Sinai Peninsula to
Egypt
Ramifications
• Egypt becomes first Arab country to
recognize Israel.
• World leaders praise Sadat.
• Other Arab countries condemn Sadat
• 1981 Muslim extremists assassinate Sadat
• New President Mubarak pledges to
maintain peace with Israel
Fighting between Israel and PLO
intensify
• Palestinians attack Israel-Israel bombs
PLO camps
• PLO begins hiding in Southern Lebanon
• Israel invades southern Lebanon and get
involved with the Lebanon Civil War
• Israel eventually with draws
Intifada 1987-1992
• Campaign of civil disobedience or uprising
by Palestinians against Israel
• Boycotts, demonstrations, attacks on
soldiers, rock throwing by teenagers
• Intifada accomplishes little. Does effect
world opinion though, putting pressure on
Israel to open peace talks with
Palestinians
Oslo Peace Accords 1993
• Israel grants Palestinians partial self rule
in Gaza and West Bank.
• Creation of Palestinian Authority
• PA must recognize Israel right to exist
• Further Steps to be taken to increase PA
rule in future.
• Israeli Prime Minister Assassinated by
Jewish extremist 1995
1995-2001
• Further expansion of the agreements at
Oslo never happen.
• Both sides never fully cooperate with
decisions made.
• Attacks by Palestinians continue and
escalate.
• Peace process moves backward.
Assignment
• Questions
–P. 1023 # 1, 3-8
The U.S. and Iran
• After WWII the Iranian Shah embraced
Western governments and wealthy oil
companies.
• Iranian Nationalists and Islamic
Traditionalists resented this relationship.
• Iran democratically elected a new Prime
Minister Muhammed Mossadeq in 1952.
• Mossadeq plans to Nationalize the Iranian
oil industry and remove western
companies from power.
Coup d’etat
• The U.S. and British were determined to protect
their oil interests in Iran and restore the Shah back
to power.
• MI6 (British Special Forces) and the CIA instituted a
Coup d'état or an overthrow and removal of
Mossadeq in 1953.
• The U.S. and British put the Shah back into power
greatly angering conservative Muslims and Iranians
• The Shah stays in power with an absolute
dictatorship that allows no opposition and imprisons
and kills any who oppose him for the next 25 years.
Iranians Revolt
• The Iranian conservative Muslim leaders known
as Ayatollahs, begin opposition from exile
outside the country.
– Send tape recorded messages which are played
throughout country.
• Excited by the messages, Iranians riot in every
major city in late 1978.
• Faced with overwhelming opposition, the Shah
flees Iran in 1979.
• Ayatollah Khomeini returns and established Iran
as an Islamic state
Iran’s Anti-U.S. Policies
• Once Khomeini took over, Iran’s hatred for
the U.S. took center stage because of our
support for the Shah and because the U.S.
gave him asylum when he fled.
• The U.S. refused to extradite him to stand
trial in Iran for his crimes against the
people.
• Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S.
embassy in Iran and took more than 60
Americans hostage.
The Crisis and current Relations
• The hostages were prisoners for 444 days before being
released in 1981.
• Iran began a war with Iraq in 1980 and the U.S. openly
supported and aided Iraq.
• What was not known until years later is that we also secretly
gave weapons to Iran through Saudi Arabia to keep the
balance of power in the region. The war ended in1988.
• Iran has slowly began to undergo reforms over the last 7-8
years. The U.S. still has no diplomatic relations with Iran and
concern grows over their nuclear power program and that it
could lead to nuclear weapons.