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What is Cancer?
It is an abnormal growth of
abnormal cells when not
treated will end in death of
the host.
Cancer Facts
• Cancer is the 2nd leading cause
of death in the U.S.
• Cancer literally means “crab”
• 1 in 2 men & 1 in 3 women will
get cancer
• 1 out of 8 will die of cancer
• 1,500 people per day die of
Cancer Facts
Number of new cancer diagnoses
2005: 1.4 million
2013: 1.7 million
Leading Types of new cancer cases
Prostate: 238,590
Breast: 234,580
Lung: 228,190
Colon: 102,480
Costs of Cancer in 2008
Medical: $77.4 Billion
Lost Productivity: $124 Billion
Cancer Facts
• More Americans with
history of Cancer are alive
today than in the past:
• 2004: 10.8 Million
• 2008: 12.0 Million
• 2012: 13.7 Million
Survival Rate:
1975-1977: 49%
1987-1989: 56%
2002-2008: 68%
Four classes of Cancer
Lymphomas - cancers of
the immune system
Leukemias - cancers of
blood-forming organs
Carcinomas - cancers of the
glands and linings (skin,
Sarcomas- cancers of the
connective tissue
(bones, ligaments
and muscles)
How Cancer Develops
1. Exposure to a carcinogen (an
2. Entry of the initiator into a cell
3. Change of the cells genetic
material. (mutation)
4. Speeding up of the cancer by a
Types of Tumors
1. Benign - a harmless tumor that
does not spread ( moles, warts,
and cysts)
2. Malignant -a cancerous tumor
that keeps growing
How Does Cancer
It metastasizes. Cancer
cells migrate from one part
of the body to another
Risks of Cancer
1. Tobacco - one third of all
cancers are linked to tobacco
2. Radiation -sun’s UV rays, xrays, above ground nuclear
weapons, radon gas
3. Diet and Exercise -high meat,
high fat, low vegetable, low
grain intakes. Exercise reduces
Cancers Causing Death
in People Ages 15-34
Brain - poor to good survival
Breast - good 50% survival
Hodgkin’s - good 54% survival
Leukemia - poor to good
Skin -excellent 90% survival
Testicular - good 66-86%
This assumes
early diagnosis
and prompt
How Cancer is Treated
1. Surgery - remove the
cancerous part
2. Radiation therapy -radioactive
3. Chemotherapy anticancer
Cancer’s 7 Warning
• Change in bowel or bladder
• A sore that does not heal
• Unusual bleeding or discharge
• Thickening or lump that
suddenly appears
• Indigestion or difficulty
• Obvious change in a wart
or mole
• Nagging cough or hoarseness
Breast Self Exam
Risk Factors for Women
Over age 40
Breast cancer on the mothers
side of the family; aunts,
sisters, g-moms
Early menstruation - before 11
No children, or first child after 35
High fat content in diet
• Best time: 7-10 days after
menstrual period
• How to do a BSE
In the shower, gentle lather, use pads of
Front of mirror, arms over head - look at
size, color, or dimpling changes
Lying down with pillow perform
“spiral or grid” method
Testicular Self Exam
• Risk Factors for Men
Age 15-35
Undescended testicles
Early puberty
Family history
Mother with breast cancer
Race (higher in Whites)
Testicular Cancer
Warning Signs
Hard lump the size of a pea
Heaviness in the testicles
Enlargement of the testicle
Dull ache in the groin
Accumulation of fluid in
• Swelling other parts: neck,
breast, groin
• When to do: monthly
• How to do a TSE
Check in the mirror
Do in the shower, this causes the
scrotum to relax
Use two hands: roll testicles
between fingers and feel for