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Chemistry Notes Part 1
Elements
• Something that
can not be broken
down into a
simpler form and
maintain
characteristic
properties
• Made up of only
ONE type of atom
• Russian Scientist
• Invented the
periodic table of
elements
Dimitri Mendeleev
– Only 50 known
elements
• 1860s
– Predicted new
elements
• Now: 118 known
elements
– #1-92 occur naturally
– Only 88 are naturally
found on earth
• “Stuff” or
“LEGOS®” of the
universe
Matter
– Solid
– Liquid
– Gas
– Plasma
– BEC (Bose-Einstein
Condensate)
Atom
Sub atomic
particles
• Basic unit of an
element
• Parts of an atom
– Electrons: (-)
• Orbits nucleus
– Protons: (+)
• In nucleus
– Neutrons: (none)
• In nucleus
• ≥ 2 atoms bonded
together
Molecule
• Ex: H2O
• Ex: O2
• Ex: CO2
Element (Atomic)
Number
• Atomic # = # of
Protons
Electron number of an
atom
• Typically # of electrons
= # of protons
Atomic Mass
• Mass of protons and
neutrons
Neutron #
Atomic #
Symbol
Name
Atomic Mass
• Atomic mass minus
atomic number= # of
neutrons
– EX: O (Oxygen)
• Protons (+) = 8
• Electrons (-) = 8
• Neutrons (0) = 8
(16-8)=8
Rows
• Periods
– How many electron
orbitals (shells) an
atom has
Columns
• Groups of Families
– Have similar
characteristics and
properties
– Same # of valence
electrons
• Outer electrons of
Valence Electrons
an atom
• Important for +
are responsible for
chemical reactions
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