Download The carpal bones are a small cluster of 8. From anatomical position

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The carpal bones are a small cluster of 8. From anatomical position (palmar side)
there are 2 distinct rows. The distal row going from pinky to thumb is hamate,
capitate, trapezoid, and trapezium and they articulate with the metacarpals. The
proximal row going from pinky to thumb is pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, and scaphoid
and they articulate with the radius and ulna. The scaphoid is oddly shaped, almost
oblong which will be easy to recognize and determine the other carpal bones.
Radiocarpal ligaments (palmar and dorsal)--Connects radius to carpal bones
Intercarpal ligaments (palmar and dorsal)--Connects carpal bones to each other
Collateral ligaments (ulnar and radial)--Ulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral
ligament connect the forearm to the wrist and help support the sides of the wrist as
There are radiocarpal ligaments and intercarpal ligaments on both the dorsal and
palmar sides of the hand.
So for the middle phalanges there are only #2-5 since the thumb does not have a
middle phalange. The proximal phalange and middle phalange articulation is called
the proximal interphalangeal joint and the middle phalange articulating with the
distal phalange is called the distal interphalangeal joint. With the thumb there is only
1 interphalangeal joint since it’s just the proximal and distal phalange.
The radiocarpal joint is where the carpals articulate with the radius (condyloid joint).
The intercarpal joints are the gliding joints between the carpals. The 1st
carpometacarpal joint is the thumb, which is a saddle joint, but the 2 nd-5th
carpometacarpal joints are gliding. The metacarpophalangeal joints (AKA: the
knuckles) are condyloid joints. So what kind of movements can your knuckles do??
The interphalangeal joints are hinge joints.
Now the retinaculum is a band of connective tissue over the carpal bones—there is a
flexor retinaculum located on the palmar side and an extensor retinaculum on the
dorsal side which form a tunnel. Beneath the retinaculum runs the median nerve. If
inflammation occurs, it causes the bands to compress and put pressure on the
median nerve, which causes numbness of the hand = Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
There are 7 tarsal bones in the foot. The calcaneus is the heel bone and the talus
rests right on top of it. The navicular bone is in front of the talus on the medial side.
The cuboid bone is shaped just like its name: cubed and it is on the lateral side. The
cuneiforms are distal to the navicular and it goes #1 from medial to #3 lateral.
It is the same as the hand. The 2 sesamoid bones are located on the underside of the
big toe.
They not only protect the structures superior to them, but also provide a
biomechanical advantage for the function of the muscle in which they are embedded.
The Talotibial (talocrural) joint is where all the weight is coming down on. It is a hinge
joint. The talocalcaneal (subtalar) joint produces inversion/eversion movements. The
intertarsal joints are the joints between the tarsal bones and are gliding joints like the
tarsometatarsal joints. The metatarsophalangeal joints are condyloid joints. Are
condyloid joints uniaxial, biaxial, or triaxial?? And the interphalangeal joints are hinge
joints like the fingers of the hand.
The arches are like springs and also provide a space underneath the arch where
muscles, tendons, blood vessels, and nerves of the plantar surface to pass without
being crushed. The longitudinal arch goes from heel to toes on the plantar surface
and the transverse arch goes medial to lateral at the metatarsals. When the
ligaments in the arches get stretched out, you get flat feet with no arch.
p.212- 217
The deltoid is a very strong medial ligament, which makes it difficult to sprain. It
helps prevent eversion of the ankle. The 3 ligaments: posterior talofibular, anterior
talofibular, and calcaneofibular ligaments are all located on the lateral side and are
not as strong, which is why lateral sprains or inversion sprains of the ankle occur
much more often than medial sprains or eversion sprains of the ankle. The anterior
talofibular ligament is the most commonly sprained ligament of the ankle joint.
The ankle has retinaculum as well just like the hand and when it becomes inflamed it
compresses on the tibial nerve. That leads to Tarsal Tunnel Syndromel
See how much bigger the deltoid ligament is in comparison to the 3 lateral
Notice the severe inversion sprain of the player’s ankle.