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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE –
SUSTAINABILITY AND
ECOCITIZENSHIP
Let’s pick one of these resources,
the FISHERIES:
 How did people view the fisheries resource in
the past?
 It was believed that fish was an UNLIMITED
resource that could be EXPLOITED (i.e., take as
much as you want).
 What HAPPENED historically to change the
view?
 1.Fish stocks depleted with overfishing
 2.Advancements in Fishing Technology (ex:
fishfinders, dragnets, big trawlers)
 3.Scientific research led to greater understanding
 What FACTORS do people consider when
managing the fisheries industry TODAY?
 Social Factors – culture, politics, values, laws
 Economic Factors – industry, jobs, tourism
 Environmental Factors – nature, beauty, biology
What is SUSTAINABILITY?
 DEFINITION:
 It means living WITHIN the EARTH’s LIMITS.
 It means meeting the needs of the
PRESENT without compromising the ability
of the FUTURE to meet their needs.
 Also known as:
 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
SUSTAINABILITY . . .
 Sustainability is a 3-tiered approach to
resource management:
 SOCIAL
 ENVIRONMENTAL
 ECONOMICAL
SUSTAINABILITY DIAGRAM
Blue Man Group – Earth to
America
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QM-mfEMssy8
TIER 1–ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY
 Ecosystems can sustain themselves if they do NOT go beyond
CARRYING CAPACITY and they are not negatively impacted by
LIMITING FACTORS.
 CARRYING CAPACITY
 The MAXIMUM number of individuals of a species
that can survive in a particular area over time.
 A TYPICAL CARRYING CAPACITY GRAPH
LIMITING FACTOR
 A key factor or component that LIMITS
the size of a population.
 4 categories:
 Availability of RAW MATERIALS
 Example: nutrients, water, air
 Availability of ENERGY
 Example: food, heat, light
 Removal of WASTE/DETRITUS
 Example: decomposition
 Interactions between
ORGANISMS
 Example: predation, competition,
disease
A CASE STUDY –
MOOSE ON THE ISLAND OF NEWFOUNDLAND
 Here in insular NL, we have a moose
PROBLEM! Their population is growing
exponentially, which means it is not yet
reaching its carrying capacity.
 Are there any environmental effects we
need to consider?
 Overbrowsing by moose destroys
forest habitat
 More human-moose incidents
 Starvation and disease among the
moose population
 Predator populations (ex: coyote,
bear) could possibly increase.
TIER 2–ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
 A belief in the idea that ECONOMIC GROWTH
and ENVIRONMENTAL WELL BEING are
common goals.
 The idea that, in order to be economically
prosperous, we CANNOT exploit our
environmental resources.
A CASE STUDY – CARIBOU POPULATIONS IN NL
 Caribou populations in NL are on the decline. A possible
measure to protect herd numbers is to decrease the
number of hunting licenses given out each year.
Are they are any ECONOMIC EFFECTS of such a
decision? Explain.
A CASE STUDY . . .
 ANSWER:
 Many businesses may experience a loss of profits,
including:
 Government revenues, outfitting companies, ATV dealers,
hotels, restaurants, hunting stores, tourist shops and
butchers.
 Individuals who normally hunt for their meat supply will
have to buy meat from grocery stores.
TIER 3–SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
 A SOCIALLY SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY is one that
is:
 Just, equitable, inclusive, democratic,
and provides a DECENT QUALITY OF
LIFE for current and future generations.
 Being socially sustainable takes into account
politics, culture, and people-centred issues.
 It ensures that basic conditions for a high quality
human life are met, including:
 Food, shelter, clothing, health care,
education, employment, financial needs,
human rights, crime prevention
A CASE STUDY – NL DEMOGRAPHICS
 Is there a trend in NL demographics that will
affect our social decisions made in this
province?
 Yes. By 2021, NL will have the HIGHEST
PROPORTION of SENIORS in the COUNTRY.
 As a result, decisions relating to environmental
issues will reflect the needs and wants of an
AGING population.
HOMEWORK!!!

LINKAGES VIEW of SUSTAINABILITY
 SYSTEMS VIEW of SUSTAINABILITY
Economy
Society
Environment
HOMEWORK!!!
 What is the major difference between the linkages
view and the systems view?
 The environment has the same portion as society and economy in
the linkages view.
 In the systems view, the environment has the largest piece, so it
is considered more important in the decision-making process.
 Some say that the practice of sustainability is a
PARADOX ( a statement that contradicts itself) Why?
 Our society values both the environment and economic growth.
It is often difficult, if not impossible, to balance these goals.
 “It has been said that a person who is worrying about his
next meal is not going to listen to a lecture about
protecting the environment.” How does this statement
relate to global sustainable development?
 Most of the world’s wealth is in the hands of a small portion of the
global population. It is difficult for the poorer countries to rally for
environmental change when they feel powerless due to
economic and social chaos.
HOMEWORK!!!

Read the case study on p. 31 of your book.

Using the information on the table on p. 31, draw a graph of :
 NUMBER OF MOOSE versus YEAR
YEAR
NUMBER OF MOOSE
1905
6
1915
1000
1925
2100
1935
4000
1945
10000
1955
22000
1965
50000
1975
75000
1985
90000
1995
106000
2005
120000
Moose Population Growth in Insular Newfoundland
140000
120000
Number of Moose
100000
80000
Moose Population Growth in Insular
Newfoundland
60000
40000
20000
0
1905
1915
1925
1935
1945
1955
Year
1965
1975
1985
1995
2005
2015
2025
MOOSE POPULATION ACTIVITY
 As a class, read p. 31-32 in text.
 Split into groups of 4. Each group gets 4 markers
and 1 poster.
 Come up and take a piece of paper that has
YOUR TOPIC on it.
 Write YOUR QUESTION in the middle box on
your poster.
 When I say “GO!”, each person fills in ¼ of the
poster with either PICTURES or WORDS
related to your topic. Try to come up as many
ideas as you can, and do not worry about being
“right!”
 When I say “STOP!”, spend a few minutes
looking at everyone else’s ideas, and pick a group
member to bring up your poster and present
your overall findings to the class.
Fill in the chart in your handout using descriptive words or diagrams,
using information from the in-class moose population activity.
MOOSE POPULATION GROWTH IN NL
MOOSE
POPULATIONS
IN
NL
FACTORS WHICH MAY NATURALLY LIMIT
THE MOOSE POPULATION IN NL IN THE NEXT 20 YEARS
Fill in the chart in your handout using descriptive words or diagrams,
using information from the in-class moose population activity.
MOOSE POPULATION GROWTH IN NL
Moose have changed our landscape (ex: stunted trees)
Moose have opened up a popular hunting opportunity in our province.
Moose populations have been growing EXPONENTIALLY.
Government
Hunters
Butchers
Hunting Supply Stores
ATV dealers
Restaurant owners
Hotels/Motels/Cabins
Outfitting Companies
Tourists
Nature-lovers
Photographers
Hikers
Native People
MOOSE
POPULATIONS
IN
NL
Reintroduce Predators (wolves/bears)
Increase length of hunting season
Increase number of licenses
Always allow hunting 7 days a week
Allow hunting in parks
Decrease fee for license or FAC course
Build deer fences/corridors
Plant less desirable trees
Relocation
Sterilization
Disease from overcrowding
Starvation from overbrowsing
Predators
Loss of habitat
Global Warming
Natural disasters
FACTORS WHICH MAY NATURALLY LIMIT
THE MOOSE POPULATION IN NL IN THE NEXT 20 YEARS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NL
 The economic and social status of Newfoundland
and Labrador is dependent on our natural resources
in our environment.
 There are 4 LEVELS of RESPONSIBILITY
associated with environmental issues:
 INDIVIDUAL
 COMMUNITY
 INDUSTRY
 GOVERNMENT
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ACT
 PURPOSE:
 This act is developed to ensure that NL resources are
available for BOTH the present AND the future.
 Specifically, it ensures renewable and non-renewable
natural resources are managed to MAXIMIZE
BENEFITS for our people while PROTECTING and
CONSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT.
 Message from the Premier - p. 41
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ACT...
 This act will coordinate efforts at all government
levels and have 3 main results for our province:
 PROTECT OUR FUTURE
 PROVIDE LEADERSHIP
 ENHANCE OUR ROLE & RESPONSIBILITY as GLOBAL
CITIZENS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY
 As an example of sustainable development in action, let’s
brainstorm a list of activities for each of the FOUR LEVELS of
sustainability.
 Our issue in question will be waste management of our garbage.
 How can EACH LEVEL work to ultimately REDUCE WASTE?
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY…
IMPACT
RESPONSIBILITIES
INDIVIDUAL
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
GARBAGE
COMMUNITY
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
IMPACT
GARBAGE
RESPONSIBILITIES
INDIVIDUAL
•Practice the 4 Rs – REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE, RECOVER
•Ex: reduce packaging, reuse water bottles and containers,
recycle products, compost, recover junk items and make
into something new and useful!
•Properly dispose of HHW – HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE
•Ex: paint, cleaners, automotive products, spent fuel,
aerosol containers, batteries, fluorescent light bulbs,
fertilizers
•Make sustainable decisions by thinking about social,
environmental, and economic factors.
COMMUNITY
•Have an adequate and sustainable LANDFILL site
•i.e., separates/reduces garbage, no dangerous run-off
•Have programs to deal with TOXIC WASTE in a sustainable
manner.
Ex: HHW days, E-waste days
•Offer curbside recycling and other incentives to encourage
citizens to reduce their waste.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY…
IMPACT
RESPONSIBILITIES
INDUSTRY
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
GARBAGE
GOVERNMENT
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
•_______________________________________________________
IMPACT
RESPONSIBILITIES
INDUSTRY
•Follow all laws and mandates for dealing with solid, liquid, and
gas wastes.
•Ex: scrubbers for affluent, treatments for effluent
•Practice 4 Rs in the manufacturing of products.
•Use all BY-PRODUCTS to reduce waste .
•Ex: Use waste heat to heat facility
•Ex: CBPPL gives used up rolls away to community groups
to use for posters.
GARBAGE
GOVERNMENT
•Lead by example. Be a model of what “BEST PRACTICES”
should look like.
•Develop, implement, enforce strict and clear policies that are
related to waste management.
•Ex: NL government has a goal to reduce landfill waste to
50% by 2010.
•Offer incentives to citizens to encourage waste reduction.
•Ex: MMSB composting bins incentive, recycling refunds,
tax deductions
3 REASONS WHY WE SHOULD PROTECT THE FUTURE OF
OUR ENVIRONMENT OF NL
1. It is the FOUNDATION for our NL ECONOMY, with rich
resources such
_______________________________________ generating
billions of dollars annually.
1.
It draws thousands of VISITORS here every year, a great
source of revenue.
1. It is an essential part of our unique Newfoundland
heritage and culture.
ECOCITIZENSHIP
 What is an ECOCITIZEN?
 Ecocitizenship is taking an
active role in bettering the
environment.
 An ecocitizen is an individual
who is EMPOWERED and
INVOLVED in environmental
decision making.
 It involves active participation
by the public in terms of
environmental concerns.
 In involves putting
environmental knowledge into
everyday practice.
3 WAYS our GOVERNMENT encourages the
PUBLIC to BECOME “eco” Friendly!
 1. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
 By Federal and Provincial Law, all citizens of Canada
have the right to be involved in decisions relating to
the environment.
 This involvement takes place through activities such”
 PUBLIC MEETINGS
 CONSULTATIONS
 PETITIONS
 Example: p. 44
3 WAYS . . .
 2. INFORMATION SHARING
 Federal Level –
 ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT
 Provincial Level –
 ACCESS to INFORMATION AND
PROTECTION OF PRIVACY ACT
 These Acts allow the public to request
information on ANY subject, other than
“classified”, from the government.
 Governments also provide information on
their websites such as:
 Scientific data, weather forecasts,
environmental assessments and laws,
media releases
3 WAYS . . .
 3. WHISTLE-BLOWER
LEGISLATION
 This is the type of legislation
that protects EMPLOYEES from
dismissal/reprimanding if the
individual reports an
EMPLOYER who is not
operating according to
environmental standards.
 Example:
 ILLEGAL DUMPING BY A
COMPANY
 AIR POLLUTION
 WATER POLLUTION
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NL –
Ecocitizenship in Practice
 MMSB
 Stands for MULTI-MATERIAL STEWARDSHIP BOARD
 The MMSB is responsible for keeping NL “healthy,
clean, and green.”
 Specifically, the MMSB:
 Develops, implements, and manages waste diversion
programs in NL
 Some MMSB programs include:
 Household Hazardous Waste days, beverage recycling,
tire/oil recycling, public education
3 or 4 Rs ASSIGNMENT
 Details in Handout