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Transcript
Richard the Lion Heart
Tori Parsons
Who is Richard the Lion
Heart?
Biography
•
Country of Origin/ Nationality- England
•
Also know by nickname- Richard the Lion Heart, Coeur de Lion
•
Lifetime-1157-1199
•
Period of being king-1189-1199
•
Family connection/ relatives- son of King Richard II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was married to Berengaria of
Navarre ( 1170- 1230)
•
Date of the coronation- The coronation of King Richard I the Lion heart was September 3, 1189.
•
Character of King Richard the Lion heart- Strong, brave, terrible temper
•
Why he was famous- Because he was a brave leader of the Third Crusade where he fought against Saladin
•
King Richard the Lion heart spent only six months of his ten year reign in England, claiming it was ‘cold and
always raining.” He cared little for England and during the period when he was raising funds for his Crusade,
Richard was heard to declare, “if I could have found a buyer I would have sold London itself.”
•
Richard was the third son of Henry II. He twice rebelled
against his father before he became King of England in
1189, but based himself in his Duchy in Aquitaine
inherited from his mother Eleanor. He spent only six
months of his reign in England and spoke little english but
mostly french.
•
His courage and prowess on the battlefield, and his
notable displays of chivalry and courtesy to his fellow
knights and enemies.
When was he born?
•
Richard was born on the
8th September 1157, at
Beaumont Palace,
Oxford, England.
The Holy Land!!!
•
Though Richard scored some successes in the Holy
Land, Richard and his fellow Crusaders failed to meet the
objective of the Third Crusade, which was to recapture
Jerusalem from Saladin.
•
On his way home from the Holy Land in March of 1192,
Richard was shipwrecked, captured, and handed over to
Emperor Henry VI. A large portion of the 150,000-mark
ransom was raised through heavy taxing of the people of
England, and Richard was freed in February of 1194.
Upon returning to England he had a second coronation to
demonstrate that he still had control of the country, then
promptly went to Normandy and never returned.
King Richard and
Queen Berengaria of
Navarre!
•
King Richard I and King Philip of France, and several
other great princes, all met in the island of Sicily in the
Mediterranean Sea, and sailed for the Holy Land. The
lady whom Richard was to marry came to meet him in
Sicily. Her name was Berengaria; but, as it was Lent, he
did not marry her then. Berengaria went on to the Holy
Land in a ship with his sister Joan, and tried to land in the
island of Cypress; but the people were inhospitable, and
would not let them come. So Richard, in great anger,
conquered the isle, and was married to Berengaria there.
•
The 1191 marriage was engineered by Richard’s
mother, Queen Eleanor, King Henry II had just died.
Richard, now king, was unmarried. Queen Eleanor
insisted that he marry before leaving for the Third
Crusade. She brought the bride she’d chosen. 26yr
Berengaria, to sicily just before Richard sailed off the
the Holy Land.
•
Though Berengaria came to love Richard, he proved
an indifferent husband, more interested in his battles
than his wife. The Crusade cracked out, no child was
born, and upon her return to France, Berengaria rarely
saw Richard. In 1199 he died, without ever taking her
to the country of which she was queen.
Death!
•
King Richard the Lion heart died on the 6th April, 1199 at
Châlus, in Limousin and was buried at the Fontevraud
Abbey. He was only aged 42 when he died.
•
The Cause of the death of King Richard the Lion heart
was because he was struck in the shoulder by a bolt from
a crossbow, and surgeons treated it so unskillfully that in
a few days he died. The English Crown was passed onto
Richards brother John.
Timeline!!!
1189-1199
•
1189-Richard I became King of England upon the death of Henry II his father
•
In the same year, William Longchamp is appointed Chancellor of England and governs
the country during Richard’s absence abroad.
•
Richard sets out with Philip of France on the Third Crusade to the Holy Land
•
1191- Richard captures the city of Acre, Palestine, and defeats Saladin at Arsuuf, near
Jaffa
•
1192- Richard reached an agreement with Saladin to guarantee Christians safe
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. On his way back to England from Palestine, Richard is
captured and headed over to Henry VI, Emperor of Germany.
•
1194 The ransom is raised in England. Richard is released from captivity
•
1195- Richard returns to England for a brief period, before leaving to fight in France,
near to retire to his homeland.
•
1199- Richard is mortally wounded by an arrow from a crossbow in battle at Chalus, in
France.
Glossary!!!
•
Duchy- the territory of a duke or duchess
•
Reign- hold royal office; rule as King or Queen
•
Abroad- in or to a foreign country or countries
•
Ransom- hold someone prisoner and demand payment for their release.
•
Inhospitable- Difficult or harsh environment to live in
•
Isle- an island or peninsula, a small one
•
Prowess- skill, bravery in battle
•
Chivalry- the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.
•
Crusade- a military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Lands from Muslims.
•
Pilgrimage- A journey to a place to associated with someone or something well know or respected.
•
Limousin- a region and former province of centre France.
•
Rebelled- armed against an establish government or ruler.
•
Abbey- building occupied by a communities of nuns or monks.
•
Courtesy- the showing politeness in one’s attitude and behavior towards others.
•
Indifferent- having no particular interest or sympathy, unconcerned.
Video of Richard the Lion
heart?
http://www.bbc.com/news/wo
rld-europe-21639734
Bibliography
http://historymedren.about.com/od/rwho/p/who_richard1.htm
Richard the Lionheart Biographyhttp://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-kings/richard-thelionheart-biography.htm
The Beaumont Palacehttps://www.google.com.au/search?q=beaumont+palace
The Holy Landhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Description_of_the_Holy_Land_W
DL2891.png
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Quotes/RichardTheLionheart
Richard the Lionheart mummifiedhttp://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-21639734