Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. Janjua ASA SoyPak Multan, Punjab, Pakistan 14 March 2012 Carp and Tilapia • • • Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second. Global demand, variety of production systems and geographic regions, some vertically integrated Environmentally sustainable – “Green Aquaculture” (no fish meal required in the diet, no antibiotics, many farms use effluents for crops) Subsistence and Export Commodity • • • • Tilapia is unique in its role as a small livestock animal grown by subsistence farmers in developing countries around the world….. And It is widely grown and exported to high value markets to be served in expensive restaurants and grocery stores Commodity or specialty crop - BOTH, like chicken World Tilapia Production of 3,300,000 mt in 2011 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic) 368,295 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2006 437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007 453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008 465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009) 579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010) 600,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 1990 0 1988 100,000 1986 Metric tons 500,000 Genetic improvements in tilapia (From: Mair, G., 2002) Selective breeding and genetic improvements • • • Excellent breeding programs - G.I.F.T. - Malaysia - Genomar - Brazil and Norway - Chitralada – Thailand - TabTim – Thailand (CP Group) - GIFT Excell – Philippines - Molobicus - Philippines - GIFT Bangladesh Several in Mexico YY Supermale - Philippines and Swansea, Egypt and Indonesia Carp and tilapia in ponds Extensive ponds Semi-intensive ponds Multiple small cages Irrigation Reservoir, Arizona Taal Lake, Philippines Paulo Afonso Reservoir, Brasil Other small cages Nile Delta, Egypt Shrimp Pond, Philippines Shrimp Pond, Thailand All tilapia farms have dogs, even cage farms Large cage farms Pond culture to cotton irrigation Fish and citrus in Hainan, China Integration of aquaculture and agriculture pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0 Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used in standard fertilization schedule of cotton. 25 20 15 Well Pond 10 5 Se pt e m be r us t A ug Ju ly Ju ne M ay 0 A pr il Total N applied with water (kg/ha) Water Results - Integration of aquaculture 3 2.5 2 Well Pond 1.5 1 0.5 be r m Se pt e A ug us t Ju ly Ju ne M ay 0 A pr il Total P applied with water (kg/ha) and agriculture Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to cotton crop. Plant height with Fish Effluent, Standard Fertilizer and Well Water Cotton Height 2002 120 100 height (cm) 80 60 40 WW WW+SF FE FE+SF 20 0 5/15 6/12 7/8 7/16 8/19 9/21 Fish Nutrition and Feeds Contents Nutrition Pond Fertilization and Natural Feeds Ingredients and Formulations Manufacture and Preparation Storage, Handling, and Feeding Methods Nutrition and feeding behaviours Tilapia are omnivores (eat lots of things) Carps are more specialized Both capable of consuming decaying vegetable matter Long intestines Filter feeders (algae, bacteria, plankton) when young Need protein and balanced nutrition for rapid growth Maybe more cost effective to settle for moderate growth Feeding strategy Juvenile fish are especially good at filter feeding phytoplankton. Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture Juveniles also filter feed on small zooplankters (especially crustaceans) Save money on juvenile feeds by partial nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds and tanks Nutrition decisions Natural herbivores and detritivores. Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and bacteria in production system. Fry and fingerlings need high protein (50-40%) diet Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic” buyers Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet Minimize fish meal in diet Use more soybean meal Utilize other grains treated with phytase Increase use of other by-product meals (meat and bone, blood, feather, poultry byproduct, brewers waste, etc.) Examine other locally available ingredients (rice bran, cotton cake, canola, sunflower seed meal, etc) Carp and Tilapia Biology Long convoluted intestine. Digests complex organic matter Fry are filter feeders Adults are grazers Proteins Need balanced set of amino acids. Basic building blocks of proteins (and muscles) Ten essential amino acids (required) several more are supplemental Lipids Lipids are basically fats. Fish need a variety of long chain hydrocarbon fatty acids for proper growth Will also bio-accumulate lipids from consumed algae Carbohydrates Needed for metabolic energy Carbohydrates are polymers of sugar. Common ingredients are corn, sorghum, rice Molasses is mostly sugar and water. Does not supply as much energy as equal mass of lipid (fat) Fiber Less digestible material to help move material though the intestines. Helps with micronutrients Vitamins and minerals Commonly supplied in “premix” Often available in natural production of ponds. Not critical for most semi-intensive fish farm operations. Very critical in cage systems Ingredients and formulations Normally need high protein diets for young 40-50% Protein requirements drop as fish reach reproductive age. Lipid demand might increase with egg formation. 30-32% Growout diets only need 25% protein Manufacturing and preparations Pellet mill Compression pellet mill Feed mixed with water to dough consistency Moistened feed put into hopper, pushed down to auger screw Auger forces feed through the die head. Holes in die determine pellet width Knife blade cuts pellets to desired length Extruders Floating feeds Feed mixes with steam in barrel of extruder Cooks ingredients, improves palatability Gelatinizes starches Steam expansion and auger forces feed out of barrel with rapid expansion. Traps air in pellet, allows to float Meat grinders and pasta mills Storage Always keep feed as dry and cool as possible Avoids spoilage and rancidity of fats in diet Bags should be on pallets, off floor to allow air to circulate and slow pests (mice, rats, roaches, ants, from getting to bags Large amount can be stored in bulk in silos. Handling Reduce rough handling Crushed pellets form fines which are not consumed by fish. Fed by hand, blower, belts Bangladesh tilapia aquaculture 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 2011 (est) 2010(est) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 0 2002 Metric tons 120,000 2011 (est) 2010(est) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 Metric tons (000) Future global tilapia aquaculture 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Conclusions Tilapia are omnivores But eating anything will not make you grow fast and strong Tilapia need balanced nutrition for rapid growth just like human children Buy TILAPIA Thank you! Questions and discussion?