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Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
An Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System
Using Expert System with Applications
Gufran Ahmad Ansari
Department of Information Technology, College of Computer, Qassim University
Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)
ABSTRACT
It is well known that developing countries are facing a lot of shortage of medical expertise in medical science. Due to this,
they are unable to provide good medical services to their country people. Peoples are not doing proper care of their health
they are getting many health disease problems. Patients also find a huge queue in hospitals. Nowadays common diseases
like Malaria, Typhoid, Plague, and Typhus etc. are becoming more dangerous problems for the people that living in this
world. Now these problems become a big challenge for the developing countries that how to provide a good medical
services their country people. Also how can avoids the patients queue from the hospitals. In this paper, author proposed a
model of Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System (AMDS) using Expert System (ES). The AMDS using ES system is very
helpful for the patients that infected with common diseases and this system will give a prescription as a medical expert also
this system is very helpful for rural areas where we have young medical expert or don’t have medical expert.
Keywords: Health, Disease, People, Country, AMDS, Expert System
1. INTRODUCTION
It is moral responsibility of a country to provide
the good medical services to their country people because
healthy people make healthy country. Medical science
field is an enormous field that includes a large number of
expertise, knowledge and information [1]. In this paper, a
model of Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System (AMDS)
using Expert System (ES) is proposed and described. This
model is a combination of AMDS and ES. This model
can be used to provide the prescription for general health
diseases like Malaria, Typhoid, Plague, and Typhus also it
works as a human expert [2, 3]. To get the good medical
treatment is a right of every country citizens. Due to the
insufficient availability experts in a medical domain it is a
big challenge for the country to provide good medical
services to their country people. The major advantage of
Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System using Expert System
is that it gives the prescription as the doctor ordered to the
patient. Also this system can be used anytime and
anywhere. Also the proposed system can work as a human
expert. When hospitals are facing the problem of general
expert this system can work as a human expert.
Expert systems technology has been widely
adopted by many software development companies and
industry [4]. Expert System is a kind of software that runs
in computer memory and works the same kind of
interaction as a specialist work and gives prescription to
the patient as a specialist. Also you can say it is a kind of
program that asks you about your symptoms disease and
provide possible prescription matching of the symptoms
like human expert. Expert system is a part of Artificial
Intelligence [5, 6]. The main purpose of expert systems is
to provide expert advice if the person seeks advice from
system. Also it is a computer program that can reproduce
thinker activities [7].
Fig 1: Component of Expert System
The structure of knowledge or facts is called the
domain of ES. There are three major components of
Expert System which are Knowledge base (KB),
Inference Engine (IE) and User Interface (UI) [8, 9].
Knowledge base holds the domain knowledge which is
employed by the inference engine to draw conclusions
[10]. The inference engine is responsible to assume and
get the solutions from relationships of knowledge base
and facts that provide by the user. It also decides which
rules should be implemented in a given situation, and in
which order it will use information in the knowledge base
[1]. Medical science field is a very active and challenging
field to implement the above techniques. For the medical
diagnosis and prescription, doctors ask the question to the
patient and try to find out the possible disease on the basis
of interview. Doctors then write the prescription for the
patient. Similarly, in medical treatment we use Expert
System for retrieving the patient history from the database
and current symptoms for the patient data and prescribe
treatment as a human expert [11, 12].
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Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
2. ADOPTIVE MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS
SYSTEM
The given Fig. 2 explains the concept of
Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System (ADMS). A
diagnosis system usually starts with the patient complaints
and the doctor learn more about the patient situation
interactively throughout an interview. In this system,
patient comes to doctor with his disease. Now, doctor is
interviewing the patients regarding their diseases and tries
to find possible disease. When doctor find the possible
disease then write the prescription for that disease and
give to the patient for treatment.
Fig 2: Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System
3. PROPOSED MODEL ADOPTIVE
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM
USING EXPERT SYSTEM
In our proposed system, “Adoptive Medical
Diagnosis System using Expert System” we have three
levels of the system. System level 1 is an Adoptive
Medical Diagnosis System; system level 2 is a Medical
Expert System and system level 3 is an update Adoptive
Medical Diagnosis System using Expert System. System
level 1 describes general scenario thing about the patient
how he can get the prescription from the doctor. Generally
in this level, patients come to the hospitals with their
diseases and AMDS system user interviews the patients
regarding their diseases and searches the prescription in
database. If prescription was found in the database then
the user gives the prescription to the patient. If
prescription is not found in the database then the user goes
to the incremental database into the second level of the
system which is the expert system. The important parts of
this system are Interface, Knowledge base Rules, facts,
incremental KB and Expert prescription, Patient. The
inference engine is the program separation of an Expert
System. It shows a problem solving model which uses the
rules in the knowledge base and the situation-specific
knowledge in the WM to resolve a problem [5, 13].
304
Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
Fig 3: Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System Using Expert System
In this level the user offered incremental
database and system see the questions that are prepared
according to the patients diseases. After given the
feedback by the patient expert system searches the
possible disease description for the patients. System has a
knowledge base rule and matches then patient disease
with knowledge rule rules and recommends the possible
prescription for patient disease. Good prescription gives to
the patient and if the prescription is not good then system
goes the third level and the rule will be updated by the
human expert.
4. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISTION
PROCESS
The knowledge base can be used as the mind of
the Expert System as all the necessary facts for
constructing the rules are contained in the knowledge
base. This knowledge is used as a source rules for the
Expert System. The most important source for knowledge
acquisition for the Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System
using Expert System was consultation with general
physician doctors, Internet medical website, medical
books and research papers. The knowledge based
consisted of acquiring the symptoms of the diseases and
possible treatments of the diseases [14, 15]. The
knowledge is represented in the form of rules. The basic
form of the rule is Rule: <name> IF condition 1, condition
2, condition 3……condition n THEN act 1, act 2, act 3
….... act m. The interface engine seeks to drive new
information about a given situation using a knowledge
based expert system. There is also a choice for modifying
and updating the expert system with new knowledge and
new rules. When the new rules are written and
implemented the rules give solutions as a changed rule by
human expert. The incremental database has all the data
regarding patient disease and prescription and also old
data and updated data.
5. A CASE STUDY
Now consider the following sample table for
diagnosis the diseases and giving the prescription to the
patient through AMDS using ES.
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Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
Table 1: General Symptoms
Symptoms No
1
2
3
4
6
Symptoms Name
Shivering, fever, repeated attacks lead to enlargement of spleen
Vomiting, Frequent loose stools followed by fever and unconsciousness.
stomach ache
General weakness, regular fever (generally in the evening and not very high), coughing,
bloodstained sputum
Inflammation of throat where a grey membrane (a false membrane on mucous surface) is
formed. Pain and swelling of throat, with fever
Temperature, abdominal tenderness,
7
slow pulse,
8
rosecoloured rash
9
High fever, skin eruptions, and severe headache
10
Redness, swelling, pus discharge through urethra, painful urination.
11
A hard painless sore on the genitalia, skin eruption.
-
-
-
-
N
N
5
In Table-1, we have two columns one is
symptom no and the other one is symptoms Name. For
example, if any patient has symptom no 3 that means
he/she has stomach ache and similarly others. Table-2 is a
General Diseases table and this table is also divided in
two columns. The first column is a Disease Name and the
other column shows the Symptoms No.
Table 2: General Diseases
Expert System. Table-3 column one shows the patient
name these patients name is starting from A and can go up
to N number of patients. Column two shows the possible
diseases that are found in different patients. Column three
shows Symptoms No that are found in a particular patient.
Column four shows the prescription given by the Adoptive
Medical Diagnosis System to the patient and the last
column shows the prescription that was given by the
Expert System.
Table 3: Patient Prescription table
Disease Name
Symptoms No
A
Possible
Disease
Name
Malaria
B
Typhoid
6,7,8
Yes
No
C
Syphilis
11
Yes
No
11
D
Unknow
n disease
1,2,3
No
Yes
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
N
-
-
-
-
-
N
N
N
N
N
Malaria
1
Cholera
Tuberculosis
Diphtheria
Typhoid
2,3
4
5
6,7,8
Typhus
9
Gonorrhoea
10
Syphilis
Patient
Name
Symptoms
No
AMDS
Expert
System
1
Yes
No
The Table -3 is a Patient Prescription table and
this table also divided into five columns.
The first column is Patient Name, second column
is Possible Disease Name, third column is Symptoms No
and the fourth column is AMDS and the last column is an
306
Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
&
Symptoms
Disease Name
Patient Prescription Chart
1
6,7,8
11
1,2,3
Malaria
Typhoid
Syphilis
Unknown Disease
AMDS
A
1
B
1
C
1
D
0
Expert System
0
0
0
1
Fig 4: Patient Prescription Chart
Fig. 4 shows the Patient Prescription Chart. In
this we have two color bars; one is blue color and the
other one is brown color. Patient A, Patient B and Patient
C get the prescription from the ADMS and Patient D who
has the symptom 1, 2, 3 get the prescription from the
Expert System.
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6. CONCLUSIONS
Many developing countries are facing the
shortage of medical experts in medical field. Due to
shortage of medical expert they are getting a huge queue
of patients in hospitals. Especially in rural areas we have
young medical expert or don’t have medical expert. This
Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System Using Expert
System can be substitute of the above problem. This is
very useful to diagnose patient diseases and prescribe the
good prescription to the patients as a human medical
expert. From the above study, it is concluded that this
Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System using Expert System
can be applied any hospitals any country for improving
medical services. Also this system can be applied
anytime, anyplace, any hospital to provides medical
prescription for general diseases.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Author is so grateful to Dean Prof. Dr. Abdullah
Bin Ibrahim Al Shoshan Dean College of Computer,
Qassim University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for
providing the excellent facility for the research in the
College of Computer. Thanks are also to Deanship of
Scientific Research Centre Qassim University, Saudi
Arabia.
307
Vol. 4, No. 3 Mar 2013
ISSN 2079-8407
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
http://www.cisjournal.org
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Author’s Profile
Dr. Gufran Ahamd Ansari received his Bachelor degree
(B.Sc. Computer Science) from Shia P.G. College,
Lucknow in 1997, Post graduate diploma from NIIT
Lucknow, MCA from DR. B.R. Ambedkar University
Agra in 2002 and Ph.D.(Computer Science) from
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A Central) University,
Lucknow, U.P., India in 2009. He has more than 12 years
of experience in teaching undergraduate as well as
postgraduate students of Computer Science, Information
Technology and Computer Applications. He has authored
more than 30 research papers on Software Engineering in
leading international journals and conferences. His current
research interests are Software Engineering (SE), AI,
Software Quality, Software Security and Software Process
Modeling.
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