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Sedimentary Rocks
Uluru, Australia
Grand Canyon, Arizona
Sedimentary Rock Examples
Shale made from small
sediments, clay and silt
Sandstone made from
medium sediment, sand
made from large
sediments, pebbles
Sedimentary Rock Examples
Bituminous Coal,
fossil fuel burned
for energy,
for buildings,
contains calcite,
dissolves in acid
Sedimentary Rock Composition
 Sediments (anything that settles out of
 Fragments of other rocks
 Plant and animal remains
Grand Canyon, Arizona
Sedimentary Rock Composition
 Minerals that settle out of solution.
(Some minerals can dissolve in water or
acids, when the acid or water is gone, the
minerals are left behind to form rocks.)
Sedimentary Rock Formation
1) Clastic Rock
 Formed from fragments of other rock
 Compacted (pressed together) and
cemented (“glued”) together over time
 Minerals are the “glue” that cement
clastic sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary Rock Formation
 Categorized by grain size
(Smallest Grain Size)
(Largest Grain Size)
Sedimentary Rocks
Examples of Clastic Rocks:
Shale 
Conglomerate 
Sedimentary Rock Formation
2) Chemical Rock
precipitate out of solution
Rock salt
Rock gypsum
Sedimentary Rock Formation
3) Organic Rock
Plant & animal remains
Sedimentary Rock Features
1) Stratification
 Layers of different sediment
 Most common Sedimentary rock
Youngest layer
is at the top
Oldest layer is
on the bottom
Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rock Features
2) Fossils
Evidence of living things
Organisms get buried in the layers of
 3 types: Trace, imprint, replacement
Aquatic (water)
organisms are the
most common type
of fossil
Sedimentary Rock Features
3) Ripple marks
 Water or wind action in sand
preserved in sandstone
 Can be seen on the surface of a
bedding plane
Ripple Marks
in Sand
Ripple Marks in
Sedimentary Rock Features
4) Mud cracks
 Form as mud dries and gets preserved
as a rock
Mud Cracks
Spheres of silica
rock crystals
contained within
limestone rock.
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