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Fungal Infections
Who is at Risk
 Seriously ill patients being treated with
 Corticosteroids
 Antineoplastic drugs
 Immunosuppressive drugs
 Patients with AIDS
 Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
Fungal Infections
 Histoplasmosis
 Coccidiodomycosis
 Blastomycosis
 Cryptococcosis
 Aspergillosis
 Pneumocystis pneumonia
 Nocardiosis
 Actinomycosis
 Candidiasis
Diagnosis
 Skin testing
 Serology
 Biopsy
Drug
therapy
 Amphotericin B
 Intravenous
 Side effects
 Hypersensitivity reactions
 Fever and chills
 Malaise
 Nausea and vomiting
 Thrombophlebitis at injection site
 Pre-medicate with Benadryl to increase tolerance and
decrease hypersensitivity
 Monitor renal function
 Ensure adequate hydration
Drug
Therapy
 Oral antifungal agents
 ketoconazole (Nizoral)
 fluconazole (Diflucan)
 itraconazole (Sporanox)
 Flucytosine (Ancobon)
 Monitor effectiveness with serology testing
Lung Abscess
Pus-containing lesion of the lung
Formed by necrosis of lung tissue
Lung Abscess
 Causes
 Aspiration of material from GI tract
into lungs
 Lung cancer
 Tuberculosis
Risk Factors for Aspiration
Alcoholism
Drug
Overdose
General
Anesthesia
Seizure
Disorder
Stroke
Signs and Symptoms
 Productive cough of purulent foul
smelling and foul tasting sputum
 Fever and chills
 Pleuritic pain
 Dyspnea
 Weight loss
Diagnosis
 Sputum cultures – obtained first so can confirm
treatment modalities
 Chest x-ray
 Bronchoscopy
Treatment and Nursing Care
Drug Therapy
 Antibiotics
 Penicillin
 Clindamycin
 Antipyretics
 Chest physiotherapy and postural drainage
 Increase fluid intake
 Rest
 Good nutrition
Complications
 Lobectomy
 Pneumonectomy