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English Grammar Review Parts of Speech Noun – Ainmfhocal An animal, place, thing, person (name), substance, quality, or idea A noun is usually the subject or object of a verb in a sentence. Nouns have number; singular and plural, as well as case; common or genitive* in Irish. Case is the form a noun changes to, indicating if it's the subject / object or if one noun possesses another. It shows the role a noun takes in the sentence. Subjects and Objects have the same forms in Irish, but nouns that possess other nouns are in the genitive case. *sometimes old Dative case forms survive. They're few, so can just be memorized in place. Examples & Irish Equivalents In English, examples of nouns are: dog, dogs, school, Dublin, tree, water, cousin, Fred, alcohol, freshness, love In Irish, they are parallel: madra, madraí, scoil, Baile Átha Cliath, crann, uisce, col ceathar, Síle, alcól, úire, grá In English the noun may be singular or plural, and take a possessive ending or punctuation. tree — singular trees — plural tree's — singular possessive trees' — plural possesive In Irish, these forms are represented by the singular common case, plural common case, genitive singular, and genitive plural crann—singular common, crainn—plural common, crainn—genitive singular, crann—genitive plural focal.ie presents them in the following order, using Irish abbreviations: eye súil bain2 gu: súile, ai: súile, gi: súl bain – baininscneach — feminine fir – firinscneach — masculine s – ainmfhocal — noun (common case) gu – ginideach uatha — genitive singular ai – ainmfhocal iolra — noun plural (common case) gi – ginideach iolra — genitive plural A complete list can be found here: http://focal.ie/Abbrevs.aspx The number after the bain or fir indicates the declension pattern of the noun. You'll notice that crann, crainn, crainn, crann follows an ABBA pattern. Since this is the most common, they call this pattern declension 1. There are five main patterns for each gender, which warrant an entire other lesson. Nouns – Ainmfhocail Definite & Indefinite Articles Nouns in English can be definite or indefinite. The word the precedes definite nouns, and the words a or an come before indefinite nouns. These words are called articles. We can also use a noun in its general sense without articles. Irish has definite articles, but not indefinite ones. The noun without anything in front of it is indefinite, in Irish. a tree crann the tree an crann trees crainn the trees na crainn We can also do this for the possessive / genitive case: of a tree crainn of the tree an chrainn of trees crann of the trees na gcrann English doesn't have grammatical gender anymore, but Irish, like many European languages does. A noun can be either masculine or feminine in Irish. The definite article in Irish changes to agree with its noun for gender (masculine or feminine) number (singular or plural) and case (common or genitive). It also changes the noun itself depending on whether the noun begins with a vowel, a consonant, d, t or s. These changes occur on the front of the noun, since that's where the definite article goes. (See chart.) Here's another example- a feminine noun: a street sráid the street an tsráid streets sráideanna the streets na sráideanna of streets sráideanna of the streets na sráideanna And in the possessive / genitive of a street sráide of the street na sráide Forms that are the same become clear in context. Here are the questions you'll need to ask yourself when processing a noun's article. 1) 2) 3) 4) Is it masculine or feminine? Is it singular or plural? Is it common or genitive case? What does the word begin with? 1. A vowel? 2. A consonant? 1. Is that consonant a d, t, or s? 5) Given my answers, which article do I use? 6) Given my answers, how will I change (or not change) the front of the noun?